Presentation on theme: "Life Cycle: Maternal and Infant Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:
1Life Cycle: Maternal and Infant Nutrition BIOL 103, Chapter 12-2
2Today’s Topics Lactation Resources for Pregnant and Lactating Women and their ChildrenInfancy
3Lactation Breastfeeding trends Healthy People 2020 goals To increase the proportion of newborns who are initially breastfed to almost _____%Current stats:74% of infants breastfed initially44% of infants still breastfed at 6 months
4Physiology of Lactation Changes during adolescence and pregnancyIncreased _______________________ of structure ducts/glands and _________ cells are formedAfter deliveryMilk production and secretionColostrum:
5Physiology of Lactation Hormonal controls stimulated by______ ________________:Prolactin: stimulates milk _____________Oxytocin: stimulates milk _____________“Let-down” reflex – release of milk from breast tissue in response to oxytocin.
6Summary of Lactation Physiology Infant suckling pituitary gland release prolactin milk tissue productionInfant suckling pituitary gland release oxytocin release milkThus, giving water or infant formula to the baby reduces the time spent nursing at the breast ___________________ declines
7Nutrition for Breastfeeding Energy and protein_________ needs than during pregnancyWell-nourished pregnant women will ______ weight slowly 1 ¾ lbs/month after ~6 months.Vitamins and mineralsMost are ____________ as during pregnancyIron and folate needs are ___________WaterAI for total water = 3.8 liters/day
8Nutrition for Breastfeeding Food choices___________ Daily Food Plan for Moms~2,200–2,800 Kcal/dayChoose foods high in vitamins and minerals and low in added sugar and solid fatsSupplementation is generally not necessary, unless…________ for vegans________ for women with irregular sun exposurePractices to avoid during lactationSmoking, Alcohol, Drugs
9Benefits of Breastfeeding (PS12, Q3a) Benefits for infantsOptimal nutritionBuilds stronger __________ system: protects infant from infections and illness including diarrhea, ear infections, pneumonia, and asthmaConvenience
10Benefits of Breastfeeding (PS12, Q3b) Benefits for motherEnhanced recovery of __________ sizeHelp women return to ____________ weight fasterConvenienceContraindications to breastfeedingInfant or maternal ____________________Damaged breast ductsDrug use
11Resources for Pregnant and Lactating Women and their Children Promote health of pregnant and breastfeeding women and their childrenSpecial Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)Service of _________________Provides food assistanceProvides nutrition educationProvides referrals
12Infancy Infancy: 0 -1 years old _______ is the best marker of nutritional statusEvaluated using __________________Weight gainDouble birth weight by _______ monthsTriple birth weight by _____ monthsLength gain (not height B/C infants can’t stand)Increase length by 50% by _____ monthsHead circumference measures _________ growth and development
13Energy and Nutrient Needs During Infancy Requirements based on composition of _______________________Energy and ProteinHighest needs of any life stage2x adult’s needsCarbohydrate and fatBoth are ______________ sourceCarbohydrates as simple sugarsWaterSupplemental water feeding is ______ necessary for healthy infants who are exclusively breastfed (or receive properly mixed formulas).This is true even in _____________ weather.Once solid foods are introduced, additional water may be required.
14Energy and Nutrient Needs During Infancy Key vitamins and mineralsVitamin __: need adequate sunlight exposureVitamin __: produced by gut bacteriaSingle dose of vitamin K since gut is sterile at birthVitamin ___: problem for a strict vegetarian momFolate metabolism and cell divisionIron: if formula fed, need iron-fortified formulaFluoride: at 6 months
15Energy and Nutrition needs during Infancy Newborn BreastfeedingRecommended as the ______ method of feeding infants to achieve optimal growth and development.Feedings 2-3 hours for a total of 8-12 feedings/day10-15 minutes/breastAAP recommends that NO supplements of formula or water be given to breastfed neonates unless medically indicated
16Energy and Nutrient Needs during Infancy Alternative feeding: Infant FormulaStandard infant formulaCow’s milk base“imperfect copy” of breastmilkSoy-based formulaSoy protein baseSwitched to soy-based if formula-fed infants are having feeding problems (vomiting and diarrhea).
17Energy and Nutrient Needs during Infancy Special formula for formula-fed infants who are:________ to milk/soy________ babiesHave rare defects in metabolic pathwayUse medium-chain triglycerides as the fat source
18Energy and Nutrient Needs during Infancy How much is enough?Guidelines for feeding infant6 or more wet diapers per day3 or more stools per dayRegain to birth weight within the first weekBest indicators that baby has enough to eat: _____________, ___________ elimination patterns, and satisfied demeanor.
19Introduction to Solid Foods Readiness for complimentary foods at ~___ months _______________ to breast milk/infant formulaInfants show:Physiological readiness:Digestive ___________________Ability to maintain __________________Depletion of iron storesDevelopmental readiness:Lack of ____________________ – young infant’s response to thrust tongue forward when a spoon is put into the mouth.Head and body controlExamples:
20The Start Healthy Feeding Guidelines Feeding schedule for the first two years
21Feeding Problems during Infancy ______________Crying and distress, perhaps from abdominal crampingNo clear effective treatmentEarly childhood dental cariesAssociated with putting baby to bed with a bottle (milk, juice, etc.)Iron-deficiency anemiaFor ______________ infants who do not eat enough iron-rich foods.
22Feeding Problems during Infancy Gastroesophageal reflux - backflow of stomach contents to espophagus~3% of newborns, usually maleUsually disappears within 12–18 monthsDiarrheaRequires increased _____________Failure to thrive (FTT)Poor growth in absence of ___________Can be due to shortage or improper preparation of appropriate foods