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Pregnancy And Lactation Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Life Cycle Nutrition.

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy And Lactation Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Life Cycle Nutrition."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Pregnancy And Lactation Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning Life Cycle Nutrition

3 Prior To Pregnancy Fertility Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

4 Prior To Pregnancy Goals –Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight –Choose an adequate and balanced diet –Be physically active –Avoid harmful influences Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

5 Placenta Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

6 Fetal Growth And Development Ovum + sperm  zygote Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

7 Fetal Growth And Development Zygote –Implantation Embryo Fetus Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

8 Stages of Embryonic And Fetal Development

9 Critical Periods Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

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11 Critical Periods Neural tube defects –Anencephaly- “no brain” –Spina bifida- neural tube defect Folate supplementation Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

12 Critical Periods Chronic diseases Fetal programming –What makes you tick? What flips the “switch?” or activates the gene? Epigenetics-heritable changes without a genetic influence.

13 Weight Prior To Conception Underweight –Preterm Overweight and obesity –Post term –Cesarean section

14 Weight Gain Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

15 Weight Gain Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

16 Weight Gain

17 Weight gian before/during pregnancy 2 nd trimester: +340 kcal/day 3 rd trimester: kcal/day +25 g protein/day +600 ug folate/day +2.6 B 12 /day +27 mg iron/day Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

18 Weight Loss Weight loss after pregnancy Can you lose it all? Change in bone structure. Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

19 Exercise During Pregnancy Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

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21 Comparison Of Nutrient Recommendations For Nonpregnant, Pregnant, And Lactating Women

22 Energy And Nutrient Needs Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

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24 Nutrition-Related Concerns Nausea Constipation and hemorrhoids Heartburn Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

25 Nutrition-Related Concerns Food cravings and aversions Nonfood cravings –Pica: Clay anyone?? Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

26 Nutrition-Related Concerns Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

27 Nutrition-Related Concerns Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

28 High-Risk Pregnancies Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

29 High-Risk Pregnancies Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

30 Infant’s Birth Weight Low birth weight –5.5 lbs. or less at birth –risk of complications or death –increase of mental defects –increase of disease –increase of physical developmental disorders Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

31 Malnutrition And Pregnancy Fertility Early pregnancy Fetal development Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

32 Maternal Health Preexisting diabetes Gestational diabetes Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

33 Maternal Health Preexisting hypertension Transient hypertension of pregnancy Preeclampsia and eclampsia: hypertension/protein in urine Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

34 Mother’s Age Pregnancy in adolescents Pregnancy in older women –Down syndrome Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

35 Practices Incompatible With Pregnancy Alcohol Medicinal drugs Herbal supplements Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

36 Practices Incompatible With Pregnancy Illicit drugs Smoking and chewing tobacco –SIDS Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

37 Practices Incompatible With Pregnancy Environmental contaminants Foodborne illness Vitamin-mineral megadoses Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

38 Practices Incompatible With Pregnancy Caffeine Weight-loss dieting Sugar substitutes Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

39 Lactation Mammary glands Prolactin-production Oxytocin-secretion Let-down reflex Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

40 Breastfeeding Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

41 Breastfeeding Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

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43 Mother’s Nutrient Needs During Lactation Energy intake and exercise Energy nutrients Vitamins and minerals Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

44 Mother’s Nutrient Needs During Lactation Water Nutrient supplements Particular foods Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

45 Practices Incompatible With Lactation Alcohol Medicinal drugs Illicit drugs Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

46 Practices Incompatible With Lactation Smoking Environmental contaminants Caffeine Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

47 Maternal Health And Lactation HIV infection and AIDS Diabetes Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

48 Maternal Health And Lactation Postpartum amenorrhea Breast health Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

49 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

50 Alcohol Prenatal alcohol exposure –Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder = ARND –Alcohol-related birth defects = ARBD Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning

51 Alcohol Drinking during pregnancy How much is too much? When is the damage done? Copyright 2005 Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning


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