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1 CEP 802A October 28, 2011 Ashley Shahidullah. 2 Autism is defined by the Autism Society Of America (ASA) as: "Autism is a complex developmental disability.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CEP 802A October 28, 2011 Ashley Shahidullah. 2 Autism is defined by the Autism Society Of America (ASA) as: "Autism is a complex developmental disability."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CEP 802A October 28, 2011 Ashley Shahidullah

2 2 Autism is defined by the Autism Society Of America (ASA) as: "Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills.”

3 3 Social skills Fails to respond to his or her name Has poor eye contact Appears not to hear you at times Resists cuddling and holding Appears unaware of others' feelings Seems to prefer playing alone — retreats into his or her "own world"

4 4 Language Starts talking later than age 2, and has other developmental delays by 30 months Loses previously acquired ability to say words or sentences Doesn't make eye contact when making requests Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm — may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech Can't start a conversation or keep one going May repeat words or phrases verbatim, but doesn't understand how to use them

5 5 Behavior Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand-flapping Develops specific routines or rituals Becomes disturbed at the slightest change in routines or rituals Moves constantly May be fascinated by parts of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car May be unusually sensitive to light, sound and touch and yet oblivious to pain

6 6 Any children in your current placement diagnosed with Autism?

7 7 Famous People with ASD Jim Henson - puppeteer George Orwell – writer, journalist, novelist Charles Darwin – naturalist Henry Cavendish – scientist Charles Schulz – cartoonist Hans Christian Anderson – author, poet Beethoven – composer Dan Ackroyd – comedian, actor Bill Gates – chairman Microsoft Emily Dickinson - writer Einstein – theoretical physicist Jane Austen – novelist Sir Isaac Newton – physicist, mathematician… Alfred Hitchcock – director, producer Mozart – composer Thomas Jefferson – political philosopher Woody Allen – actor, director, comedian, playwright Thomas Edison - inventor

8 8 Researchers have documented that students with disabilities, including students with ASD who are fully included:  display higher levels of engagement and social interaction  give and receive higher levels of social support  have larger friendship networks  have developmentally more advanced individualized education plan goals than their counterparts in segregated placements (Fryxell & Kennedy, 1995; Hunt, Farron-Davis, Beckstead, Curtis, & Goetz, 1994)

9 9 A 1990 study conducted by Harris et al. comparing 5 students with ASD enrolled in a segregated preschool classroom, 5 children with ASD in an inclusive classroom, and 4 typically developing peers found no significant differences in language ability between the children with ASD in either setting. What does this mean? Typically interpreted as supporting inclusion b/c segregated placements have historically been reported to provide more intensive educational opportunities…

10 10 For inclusion to be successful… Educators must have knowledge of and access to empirically validated strategies that will assist inclusive efforts (scientifically based interventions) Most research has been conducted with young children There is a lack of pertinent research on including students with ASD at middle and high school levels

11 11 “The level and intensity of supports required for a given student with autism will depend largely on the characteristics of the student’s functioning.”

12 12 The following strategies have been documented as effective in supporting students with ASD in general education: 1. Antecedent Procedures 2. Delayed Contingencies 3. Self-Management Strategies 4. Peer-Mediated Interventions 5. Multi-component Interventions

13 13 1. Antecedent Procedures Can be designed to prevent and reduce challenging behavior They are proactive – address challenging behavior prior to its occurrence Involve altering routines or environments Include priming, prompt delivery, and picture scheduling

14 14 Priming Also called pre-practice Consists of previewing information or activities that may be considered challenging before the child actually engages in that activity (Wilde, Koegel, & Koegel, 1992) ◦ Ex: Fire drill, substitute teacher, field trip, rainy day schedule, academics Links individual instruction to larger classroom group activities

15 15 Priming Has been used to improve social interactions and proven effective in increasing initiations of social interactions with typical peers (Zanolli, Daggett, & Adams, 1996) Two priming strategies that may be used to assist in preparing for novel events: ◦ Social Stories ◦ Video priming

16 16 Modified Social Stories A method for explaining what is happening and what is expected across environmental settings Typically written in first person Include illustrations Provide perspective of a person with ASD Should be at the student’s comprehension level Should be read consistently over a period of days Copies for use at home also helpful

17 17 How to write a social story… Choose a behavior for the focus of your story. Describe the social situation your child has difficulty with. Add a description of what to expect in that specific situation. Include your child’s feelings or behaviors your child displays in that situation. Include a description of what is expected from your child in the social situation. List the reasons why it is important. End the story with a pledge to achieve appropriate behavior in that social situation. Include the effect it has on other people or the individual.

18 18 Not listening It's important to look at people and stop what I'm doing when they have something to tell me. Sometimes grown-ups tell me very important things that I need to know. If I don't look & listen I might miss something important and make the grown-ups angry. I know it's wrong to keep doing what I'm doing when grown-ups want me to listen. I will listen to grown-ups when they talk to me. Social Story Example

19 19 When I feel I must talk Sometimes I want to say things very badly, it feels like I have to say it right that second. It's important to wait until the other person is finished talking. Even though it feels important, it can wait. They will listen to me better if I wait patiently. When I interrupt, it just angers people. People wonder, "what's wrong with him?", "why can't he wait?" If I can wait, I can tell them later. Social Story Example

20 20 Video Priming Involves the child watching videotapes of positive examples of adults, peers, or him or herself engaging in a behavior that is being taught. Can be especially helpful in transition for students with ASD Has been shown to increase positive social behaviors

21 21 Prompt Delivery Prompting strategies have been successful in facilitating the inclusion of students with ASD In order to elicit an appropriate response in a targeted academic or behavioral activity, one must provide prompts that supplement the general instructional routine Can be visual, auditory, or kinesthetic

22 22 Picture Schedules Often used as a strategy for increasing predictability Alternative to verbal and written instruction Can serve as effective cues in alerting students with ASD to upcoming changes in activities

23 23

24 24 2. Delayed Contingencies Some researchers have examined the extent to which instruction using delayed or unpredictable contingencies can facilitate the generalization of behavior in the absence of direct supervision Reinforcing behaviors on an unpredictable schedule and gradually increasing the time between reinforcement

25 25 3. Self-Management Strategies Consist of teaching the student to: –Discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate behaviors –Evaluate her or his own behavior –Monitor her or his behavior over time – –Reinforce her or his behavior when pre-specified criteria are met Research has shown that teaching a child to self-manage behavior in the classroom can result in independent functioning to the point where the student is no longer relying on the teacher or on an instructional aide (Koegel, Harrower, & Koegel, 1999)

26 26 4. Peer-Mediated Interventions Utilizing typical peers to support the academic functioning of students with ASD has the potential to reduce the need for continuous one-on-one adult attention, thus allowing students with autism to function with increased autonomy and in a manner that more closely matches that of their typical classmates (Putnam, 1993) Peer tutoring, peer support, cooperative learning

27 27 5. Multi-Component Interventions Use multiple strategies to facilitate the educational inclusion of students with ASD Ex: use of conversation books, rotating peer buddies, weekly class meetings, media-related activities, and staff prompting

28 28 Asperger’s Syndrome Has been described as an autistic continuum disorder and is characterized by: –Motor clumsiness –Abnormal language development –Abnormal social development –Presence of fixed interests –Limited range of imaginative activities (Ghaziuddin & Gerstein, 1996; Howlin, 1993; Wing, 1991)

29 29 Prevalence Autism occurs in approx. 4 out of every 10,000 children Asperger’s ranges as high as per 10,000 ◦ Considerably more common in boys than girls ◦ Display abnormal communication, social idiosyncrasies and oddities throughout their lives (Goble, 1995)

30 30 Challenges Communication: –May have high verbal intelligence –Abnormal communication is usually evident –Lack of spontaneous and reciprocal conversation –Overuse of stereotyped phrases –Little descriptive language –Imitation and echoing of words –Impaired imagination –General lack of understanding of meaning of language and function of communication –Inappropriate communication may include too much information or the use of socially inappropriate style

31 31 Motor clumsiness – physically awkward and display a lack of coordination (handwriting difficulties, tip toe walking, etc) Obsessions – in contrast to Autism where the obsession is often focused on objects, individuals with Asperger’s appear to obsess about specific information areas such as math or science. ◦ Special interests may extend into adulthood and can form the basis of a successful career

32 32 Attention : –Difficulty focusing on significant cues in the environment –Difficulty screening out irrelevant stimuli –Difficulty switching attention while maintaining self-control –May appear to be distracted by every stimulus or overly absorbed in one particular activity to the exclusion of all else –May experience hypersensitivity to noise, touch, taste, and smell making it difficult for them to cope in a classroom or on playground without support, understanding, and flexible curriculum arrangements

33 33 Social Skills: –Difficulty interpreting subtle social cues, particularly non- verbal body language –May not recognize that another is bored or in a hurry –Often use smiles, greetings, eye contact and social distance inappropriately –They may be naïve and vulnerable (bullying and peer pressure) –Become increasingly frustrated during teen years which may cause physical aggression or withdrawal

34 34 Challenges for Teachers Need for a structured program: ◦ Benefit from highly structured environment (orderly and routine oriented) ◦ Teach academic skills as well as self-control, self- discipline, and appropriate social interaction skills ◦ An effective program needs to recognize students’ strengths and provide opportunities for them to achieve in their areas of interest

35 35 Behavior Management: ◦ Rarely disruptive without reason ◦ Likely to disrupt class due to lack of ability to focus, confusion, literal interpretation of instructions, inability to read social rules and cues, and hypersensitivity ◦ Frustration and stress may be caused by over stimulation, and unpredictable changes

36 36 Interventions: –Self-calming strategies can reduce anxiety –Creation of list of appropriate and inappropriate behavior – the student puts a tick or a cross after descriptions of behavior he/she considers to be good or bad – encourages students to identify their own problem areas rather than being told by others what is appropriate and inappropriate –Later students can be asked to think about, talk about, and write down why he/she behaved in certain ways in certain circumstances and to consider the effects the behavior has on teachers, students, and his/her learning

37 37 Tips for Inclusion Teachers Carefully structure seating arrangements and group work Provide a safe haven Save the student from himself or herself Prepare for changes in routine Use available resources/ make needed accommodations Connect with parents, internet support groups, and other support networks Promote positive peer interactions Capitalize on special interests Don’t take it personally Help your classroom become a caring community

38 38 What does this mean for math? Students with ASD experience math difficulties because: ◦ Math is compact so that every # and symbol is critical to understanding ◦ Math is full of abstract concepts (word meanings, symbols, relationships, formulas…) ◦ It is not always done in L to R order ◦ Receptive/expressive language impacts learning ◦ Requires processing information in multiple formats and generalizing to new situations

39 39 Math Instruction Focuses more on understanding than rote learning – which is challenging for students with ASD who typically have strong rote skills Requires students to continually predict and experiment (confirming, self-correcting, reprocessing) Requires that students access and apply prior knowledge in new situations – which is difficult for students with ASD who experience problems processing information to comprehend meaning

40 40 7QSQb4&feature=related Autism classroom 4 4

41 41 To improve practices for students with ASD requires attention to a number of issues

42 42 How do we address this? Must observe the products of their thinking to determine how LANGUAGE ability or disability is affecting math learning Assume that they ARE having language issues Language is the scaffold that can help organize and communicate accurately math concepts

43 43 Students with autism may learn tasks differently than those with Asperger’s Students with Asperger’s may be able to learn from interactions with peers better than children with more severe autism It may not be “what” we are teaching but “how” we are teaching that is the key (task analysis – break down complex tasks) Individual interventions are needed – not all students respond to the same instruction

44 44 Task Analysis Task analysis is a process by which a task is broken down into its component parts. It is easy to forget that some tasks need to be broken down into chunks, because after a time, they become like second nature to us. We often expect students to be able to figure out the steps involved in completing a task but…

45 45 Brushing teeth  getting the toothbrush and toothpaste,  turning on the water  wetting the toothbrush  unscrewing the lid of the  Toothpaste  putting the toothpaste on the toothbrush,

46 46 When working with students with disabilities, it’s necessary to take the time to express the different parts of a task until the student has mastered each one.

47 47 How does it work?  Determine what task you want the student to perform  Figure out what steps will be required to complete the task  Teach the student one step until the student displays mastery of it  Decide what order to teach the steps in – chaining  As each part of the process is learned, add it to the chain until the task can be completed independently

48 48 For Example 5 th and 6 th grade students are assigned combination locks for the first time… Many students are struggling with this task Complete a Task Analysis of “Using a Combination Lock”

49 49 Language Strategies in Math Don’t use yes/no responses with non or low verbal students with autism. Their language errors may interfere with understanding of math Often successful with direct, specific responses of giving or other performance related activities ◦ Doing or manipulating objects is most successful

50 50 Choose vocabulary wisely: ◦ Are they same number or different number (not the abstract word ‘amount’) ◦ Avoid “one” since it can be a pronoun or an amount (everyone needs “one” means something different than the number 1) ◦ “enough” can be a difficult word because it is variable. Try using the words ‘extra’ and ‘no extras’ to suggest a more specific concept

51 51 Social Participation Cooperative group work may be difficult given students with ASD often have difficulty perceiving other people’s perspective and understanding others’ thinking. Allowing students with ASD a choice of working with a partner or independently may be more successful

52 52 Manipulatives Students with ASD have a repertoire of interests and activities which make it difficult to use the same materials in a variety of ways May require demonstration of manipulative use in different ways (teacher models) Must explicitly teach students with ASD to be flexible in their interests, thinking, and activities – very challenging

53 53 Splinter Skills May have their own unconventional method of solving problems that may yield a correct solution but cannot explain why it works May successfully calculate a complex math problem yet struggles with answering a one-step addition problem Important to make connections between mastered skills and new skills

54 54 Asperger Disorder Generally struggle with application of math principles, understanding functions, and performing accurate calculations Noises, space, etc. interrupt their thinking May need to change setting, use headphones or ear plugs to block out noise, etc… May have strengths in mental computation but difficulty communicating or showing how they arrived at answer (requirement to show work is inherent in mathematics)

55 55 May have difficulty selecting the important information and selecting appropriate strategies or the correct pattern May have difficulty monitoring the steps in their thinking; can be disorganized or not know where to begin, may not stop to evaluate their work May require prompt or cue cards for support

56 56 Curricular Accommodations Avoid True/False format – confusing because one word or multiple words can be incorrect and meaning is implied rather than directly stated Multiple choice and fill in the blank are more successful Modify directions – simplify, use reference charts, check for understanding through retelling

57 57 Modify the way the complete assignments, organize or solve problems – allow illustrations, verbal responses, mental math… Change location in which assignments are completed Break task down into manageable chunks with time allotted for each component Use visuals such as cue cards or prompts – use different colored blocks, pencils, or manipulatives to illustrate the different processes involved in the problem

58 58 Rather than write out math problems on lined paper, turn the paper sideways to use columns Use graph paper to organize and set up computation problems – provides structure and assists with alignment issues Accept different solution processes – shouldn’t be required to use a particular solution strategy but encouraged to find many ways Speed of completion may not be the best measure or expectation – praise for being persistent and careful rather than fast

59 59 Importance of Visuals &feature=related

60 60 For Word Problems When the goal is to master an operation rather than to decipher the complex language in word problems ◦ Re-write the problem to assure that the language is not confusing ex. How many more problems can be re- written as How many more X than Y? ◦ Remove unnecessary words and change pronouns to names to make references easier  Ex. Mary had broken one, how many did Mary have left?

61 61 TouchMath

62 62 MSU Autism Study Dr. Bolt and Dr. Ferreri The study of 194 Michigan educators found that many teachers have little to no experience working with autistic children. More than 40 percent are not applying the most effective teaching methods, according to researchers. According to the study, 15,403 students in Michigan have autism spectrum disorders The $310,000 study was funded by Eileen and Ron Weiser, the Kellogg Foundation and the Skillman Foundation Presented findings to state policymakers

63 63 Snoezelen-Sensory Room

64 64 Additional Resources Sites for Autistic Support Teachers Free Printable Games Autism Resources TEACCH

65 65 Technology Lesson Plan

66 66 References Carrington, Suzanne and Graham, Lorraine (1999) Asperger's syndrome: learner characteristics and teaching strategies. Special Education Perspectives 8(2): Baker, S. (2007). Math Strategies Supporting Students with ASD. Iowa Dept. of Ed/ University of Iowa CHSC presentation power point. Harrower, J. & Dunlap, G. (2001). Including children with autism in general education classrooms: A review of effective strategies. Behavior Modification, 25,

67 67 For next week… Read “Understanding and Teaching Students with Traumatic Brain Injury” Additional articles posted are optional Article on physical & health disabilities Conduct 9 th observation

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