Presentation on theme: "Understanding Students with Autism"— Presentation transcript:
1 Understanding Students with Autism Chapter 11Understanding Students with AutismEach Power Point presentation can be viewed as transparencies or computer presentations. There are discussion questions and links to websites imbedded in each Power Point presentation to assist instructors and students. Please refer to the Instructors Manual for the complete list of ancillaries that support each chapter. The DVD and Companion Website all have video clips and other materials for an enriching multimedia instructional experience.
2 Defining AutismIDEA: Autism is a developmental disability that affects children prior to the age of three in three areas:Verbal & nonverbal communicationSocial interactionAcademic performanceDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)Autism is a spectrum disorder, including Asperger’s Syndrome
3 Prevalence of Autism Greater public awareness In 2003–2004, 132,333 studentsFewer students with Asperger SyndromeMales outnumber females four to oneIncreased prevalence in last decadeDifferent theories for the increase in prevalence:Greater public awarenessMore refined diagnostic proceduresThe alleged negative effect of vaccines (especially containing mercury) on young children’s brain developmentDiscuss the prevalence of the disability and the dramatic growth it has undergone over the past decade. For discussion purposes you may want to access the 60 Minutes program title “To Vaccinate or Not” ( This offers a 60 Minutes expose on the issues surrounding vaccination and its possible tie to autism.
4 Characteristics of Autism Language DevelopmentRanging from no verbal communication to complex communicationDelayed LanguageEcholaliaSocial DevelopmentDelays in social interaction and social skillsImpaired use of nonverbal behaviorLack of peer relationshipsFailure to spontaneously share enjoyment, interests, and achievementsLack of reciprocity
5 Characteristics of Autism Repetitive behaviorObsessions, tics, and perseverationsProblem behaviorSelf-injurious behaviorAggressionNeed for environmental predictabilitySensory and movement disordersIntellectual functioningSavant syndrome
6 Determining the Causes Historical perspectives on causes“Refrigerator mothers”Biomedical causesAbnormalities in brain developmentNeurochemistryGenetic factors
7 Determining the Presence Usually in early childhoodOften uses some of the same tests given to students with mental retardation and severe/multiple disabilitiesCriteria may include:Speech and languageAcademic achievementCognitive functioningMedical physical statusAutism Diagnostic Interview - Revised
8 Determining Supplementary Aids and Services Address the domains of access, classroom, and task modificationsAccess involves modifications to the community, campus, building, or classroom to ensure physical and cognitive accessAlso design IEPs to provide “behavioral access”The lunchroom is a frequent environment in which problem behaviors occur; consider modifications to seatingInclude accommodations for before and after school and in the hall between classesDevelop visual schedules
9 Planning for Other Educational Needs Provide students instructional supports that enable them to develop and maintain friendshipsPromoting friendshipsInclude students in all areasUse peer buddy programsUse person-centered planning models that involve peersEnsure peers learn about the goals of inclusion
10 Planning for Other Educational Needs Students’ IEPs should address the following instructional areas:Trustworthiness and loyaltyConflict resolutionGeneral friendship skillsPositive interaction styleTaking the perspective of others
11 Early Childhood Students Early intervention and preschool programs use different approaches, including the following:Applied behavior analytic techniques, such as discrete trial trainingIncidental teaching in natural environmentsCommunication, sensory processing, motor planning, and shared affect with caregivers and peersSocial stories address the “hidden curriculum”
12 Elementary and Middle School Students Positive behavior supportsProactive, problem-solving, and data-based approach to improving appropriate behavior and achieving important academic, social, and communication outcomesInstructs students to replace their problem behavior with appropriate behaviorAlso seeks to rearrange school environments and change school systems to prevent students from engaging in problem behaviorsPrimary goal of universal support is to create a positive learning context for all students
13 Secondary and Transition Students The techniques underlying positive behavior support emerged from a set of strategies referred to as applied behavior analysis (ABA)ABA uses the principles of operant psychologyDiscrete trial training is based on the “three term contingency” outlined by applied behavior analysis:Presentation of the discriminative stimulus (cue)Presentation of the prompting stimulus (if needed)The responseThe reinforcing stimulus
14 Measuring Students’ Progress Autism Screening Instrument for Educational Planning (ASIEP-2)Measures progress in addressing other educational needsMeasure outcomes related to school-wide positive behavior interventions and supportsDirect counts of problem behaviorProblem behavior reported by environment or time of dayIndirect indicators of successData collection toolsSchool Wide Information SystemSchool-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET)Self-Assessment of Contextual Fit in Schools1 more slide
15 Making Accommodations for Assessment Students with autism may perform better on standardized assessments when provided more frequent positive reinforcementThey may also perform better when assessments are administered by a familiar personPresence of the examiner minimizes the students’ anxiety and stress associated with testing