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Chapter 11 Adolescence. 1. Physical Development Modern society requires more time/maturation before placing young people in adult roles Modern society.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Adolescence. 1. Physical Development Modern society requires more time/maturation before placing young people in adult roles Modern society."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Adolescence

2 1. Physical Development Modern society requires more time/maturation before placing young people in adult roles Modern society requires more time/maturation before placing young people in adult roles Early – Early – Middle – Middle – Late – Late – Adolescents develop physical/mentally/emotionally at different rates Adolescents develop physical/mentally/emotionally at different rates

3 Adolescent Growth Spurt Lasts two to three years Lasts two to three years Grow 8-12 inches on average Grow 8-12 inches on average Girls tend to grow earlier in adolescence Girls tend to grow earlier in adolescence Boys catch up in mid-adolescence and pass girls Boys catch up in mid-adolescence and pass girls Growth spurts can be awkward, body parts can grow disproportionate to rest of body Growth spurts can be awkward, body parts can grow disproportionate to rest of body Ex. Rick Ex. Rick

4 Sexual Development Puberty – developmental changes that lead to ability to reproduce Puberty – developmental changes that lead to ability to reproduce Primary sex characteristics – directly involved in reproduction Primary sex characteristics – directly involved in reproduction Secondary sex characteristics – not directly involved in reproduction Secondary sex characteristics – not directly involved in reproduction Ex: hair growth, deepening voice Ex: hair growth, deepening voice Changes linked to new hormone levels Changes linked to new hormone levels

5 Changes in Males Pituitary gland causes increase in testosterone Pituitary gland causes increase in testosterone Creates male physical characteristics Creates male physical characteristics

6 Changes in Females Pituitary gland causes increase in estrogen Pituitary gland causes increase in estrogen Creates female physical characteristics, menstruation Creates female physical characteristics, menstruation

7 Differences in Maturation Rates Boys who mature earlier have some advantages, sports, popularity, self-esteem Boys who mature earlier have some advantages, sports, popularity, self-esteem Early physical development does not necessarily reflect emotional/cognitive maturity Early physical development does not necessarily reflect emotional/cognitive maturity Early maturation in females can be more difficult, height and size can be uncomfortable Early maturation in females can be more difficult, height and size can be uncomfortable

8 2. Social Development Can be a time of stress, conflict, identity confusion Can be a time of stress, conflict, identity confusion Adolescence both a physical and psychological concept Adolescence both a physical and psychological concept Psychological adolescence ends when individual put in role of adult responsibility Psychological adolescence ends when individual put in role of adult responsibility

9 Relationships with Parents Conflict during adolescence with parents exists, but is often exaggerated Conflict during adolescence with parents exists, but is often exaggerated Conflicts often derive from adolescent drive for increased independence, autonomous choice Conflicts often derive from adolescent drive for increased independence, autonomous choice Older adolescence tend to spend more time outside the home, not with parents Older adolescence tend to spend more time outside the home, not with parents Most parents/adolescents share values, beliefs (religious, political, social) Most parents/adolescents share values, beliefs (religious, political, social) Most adolescents interact more with mother than father, more likely to be close to mother Most adolescents interact more with mother than father, more likely to be close to mother

10 Relationships with Peers Become more important during adolescence Become more important during adolescence By 7 th grade, peers become primary source of support for social/emotional issues By 7 th grade, peers become primary source of support for social/emotional issues

11 Adolescent Friendships Friends provide support and understanding during difficult time of transition Friends provide support and understanding during difficult time of transition provide self-esteem provide self-esteem Closest friends typically similar in age, attitudes, interests, tend to be same sex Closest friends typically similar in age, attitudes, interests, tend to be same sex

12 Cliques/Crowds Cliques – peer groups of 5-10 people, spend great deal of time together Cliques – peer groups of 5-10 people, spend great deal of time together Adolescents join to find identity, stability, sense of belonging Adolescents join to find identity, stability, sense of belonging Crowds – larger groups, do not spend great deal of time together but share attitudes, group identity Crowds – larger groups, do not spend great deal of time together but share attitudes, group identity

13 Peer Influences Peers actually more likely to encourage positive behaviors (good grades, enroll in college) than negative ones (drugs, etc.) Peers actually more likely to encourage positive behaviors (good grades, enroll in college) than negative ones (drugs, etc.) Adolescents dress, speech most influenced by peers, but… Adolescents dress, speech most influenced by peers, but… Values, morals, most influenced by parents Values, morals, most influenced by parents Peer pressure peaks around age 15, dissipates around 17, could be due to growth in identity, self-esteem, individualism Peer pressure peaks around age 15, dissipates around 17, could be due to growth in identity, self-esteem, individualism

14 Dating Happens in stages Happens in stages 1. Join events where interaction with opposite sex will happen 2. Group dating 3. Paired dating

15 3. Identity Formation Erikson – primary task of adolescence is forming identity Erikson – primary task of adolescence is forming identity learning what one stands for, who they are, what they believe, what their goals are, etc. learning what one stands for, who they are, what they believe, what their goals are, etc.

16 Identity Development Erikson – establishing identity accomplished mainly by choosing commitment to a particular role or occupation Erikson – establishing identity accomplished mainly by choosing commitment to a particular role or occupation Adolescents may experiment with different values, beliefs, roles (selves) Adolescents may experiment with different values, beliefs, roles (selves) “You don’t have to keep this one!” “You don’t have to keep this one!” Identity Crisis – turning point, one examines his/her values, makes or changes a decision about life role Identity Crisis – turning point, one examines his/her values, makes or changes a decision about life role

17 Identity Status Marcia, found four categories of adolescent identity status, or reaction patterns and processes Marcia, found four categories of adolescent identity status, or reaction patterns and processes Move in and out of categories Move in and out of categories Four categories are Identity moratorium, foreclosure, diffusion and achievement Four categories are Identity moratorium, foreclosure, diffusion and achievement

18 Identity Statuses Identity Moratorium - Teens who delay making decisions about important questions Identity Moratorium - Teens who delay making decisions about important questions Explore different alternatives, identities Explore different alternatives, identities Identity Foreclosure - Make commitments which close out other identities, based on others suggestions, not their own choices Identity Foreclosure - Make commitments which close out other identities, based on others suggestions, not their own choices Identity Diffusion – constantly searching for meaning and identity, have not committed to one Identity Diffusion – constantly searching for meaning and identity, have not committed to one Identity Achievement – have explored alternatives and made own choice about identity, course of life, future goals Identity Achievement – have explored alternatives and made own choice about identity, course of life, future goals

19 Gender and Identity Formation Erikson’s view of identity formation (career oriented) historically applied primarily to boys Erikson’s view of identity formation (career oriented) historically applied primarily to boys Today, more female adolescents likely to fit this view, due to change in gender roles, more women focusing on careers Today, more female adolescents likely to fit this view, due to change in gender roles, more women focusing on careers Female adolescents voice more concern over balancing work and family Female adolescents voice more concern over balancing work and family

20 Ethnicity and Identity Formation I.F. often more complicated for minority groups I.F. often more complicated for minority groups May be faced with conflicting cultural values May be faced with conflicting cultural values May face discrimination May face discrimination

21 4. Challenges of Adolescence Stress can lead to: Stress can lead to: Eating disorders Eating disorders Drug, alcohol abuse Drug, alcohol abuse Suicide Suicide

22 Anorexia Nervosa Self-starvation Self-starvation Majority female Majority female Weigh less than 85% of healthy weight Weigh less than 85% of healthy weight Girls need 2200 calories, boys 3000 per day Girls need 2200 calories, boys 3000 per day Most young, white, upper class Most young, white, upper class Often have distorted body image, see fat that is not there Often have distorted body image, see fat that is not there May obsess about food, prepare it, give it away to others May obsess about food, prepare it, give it away to others

23 Bulimia Nervosa Binge eating followed by vomiting, other methods of food elimination Binge eating followed by vomiting, other methods of food elimination Majority female Majority female

24 Origins of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa Often women Often women Attempt to attain ideal body image Attempt to attain ideal body image Feminine ideal growing thinner (models of 50s vs. today) Feminine ideal growing thinner (models of 50s vs. today) Parents of eating disorder sufferers more likely to have problems with eating, think daughters should lose weight, view daughters as unattractive Parents of eating disorder sufferers more likely to have problems with eating, think daughters should lose weight, view daughters as unattractive Runs in families. Possible causes include perfectionist personality. Runs in families. Possible causes include perfectionist personality.

25 Substance Abuse Experimentation often begins in adolescence Experimentation often begins in adolescence Causes: rebellion, curiosity, peer pressure, excitement seeking, etc. Causes: rebellion, curiosity, peer pressure, excitement seeking, etc. Serious health dangers Serious health dangers Cigarettes, dopamine, feelings of happiness Cigarettes, dopamine, feelings of happiness

26 Sexuality Hormonal changes during adolescence Hormonal changes during adolescence Media, belief from teens that peers are more sexually active than reality Media, belief from teens that peers are more sexually active than reality 10% of girls become pregnant annually 10% of girls become pregnant annually Cognitive development, realization of consequences, how life changes limited Cognitive development, realization of consequences, how life changes limited Factors (teen pregnancy): poor relationships w/ parents, lack of goals, emotional issues, peer pressure, lack of knowledge about reproduction) Factors (teen pregnancy): poor relationships w/ parents, lack of goals, emotional issues, peer pressure, lack of knowledge about reproduction)

27 Juvenile Delinquency Illegal activities committed by children or adolescents Illegal activities committed by children or adolescents Low income not a factor Low income not a factor 25-30% of serious crimes in US committed by someone under % of serious crimes in US committed by someone under 18 Factors: low self-esteem, parental issues, lack of education/goals, peer pressure, relatives convicted of criminal behavior, etc. Factors: low self-esteem, parental issues, lack of education/goals, peer pressure, relatives convicted of criminal behavior, etc.


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