Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11: Adolescence Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 11: Adolescence Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World Section 1: Physical DevelopmentSection 2: Social DevelopmentSection 3: Identity FormationSection 4: Challenges of AdolescenceSimulation: Applying What You’ve Learned
2Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World Working and the problems that can come with a job are among the challenges facing adolescents today.Young people are following job opportunities to urban areas and more industrialized countries.16 percent of all children between five and fourteen years old were active in their countries’ economies in 2004.Teens Around the WorldMany teens work in addition to going to school.Today employment is more common among middle-class teenagers.Working can have negative effects on teens.Teens in the United States–
3What do you think?How has adolescent employment changed in the United States?Do you think the benefits of teens working long hours during the school year outweigh the disadvantages? Why or why not?
6Section 1 at a Glance Physical Development During the adolescent growth spurt, which lasts two or three years, the average teenager grows 8 to 12 inches in height.Many physical changes take place during adolescence.Maturation rates vary among adolescents.
7Physical Development Main Idea Reading Focus Adolescence is a time of great change, especially in terms of physical development.Reading FocusWhat are the three age category labels between childhood and adulthood?What is the adolescent growth spurt?What does sexual development encompass?What differences in maturation rates occur among adolescents?
9From Child to AdultIn Western societies today, the status and duties of adulthood have been delayed.Today adolescence is subdivided into three age categories.Early adolescence (11 through 14)Middle adolescence (15 through 18)Late adolescence (18 through 21)
10What are the years of the three age categories of adolescence? Reading CheckRecallWhat are the years of the three age categories of adolescence?Answer: early adolescence—11 through 14; middle adolescence—15 through 18; late adolescence—18 through 21
11The Adolescent Growth Spurt The adolescent growth spurt usually lasts two or three years. During this period, most adolescents grow 8 to 12 inches in height.Girls typically begin the adolescent growth spurt earlier than boys.During middle adolescence most boys grow taller than their female counterparts.The exact time when this growth will occur for any adolescent is difficult to predict.Differences Between Boys and GirlsSome teenagers may feel they look awkward, but they actually tend to be well coordinated during adolescence.Proper nutrition is important during the adolescent years.The Awkward Age–
13Define What is the awkward age? Reading Check Answer: the period of sudden growth during adolescence
14Sexual DevelopmentAdolescence begins with puberty, which refers to specific developmental changes that lead to the ability to reproduce.During puberty, adolescents develop primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics.In girls, increased estrogen spurs the growth of breast tissue. The pelvic region also widens.The cyclical production of estrogen regulates the menstrual cycle. The first cycle is called menarche.Changes in FemalesIncreased output of testosterone causes boys’ sexual organs to grow, their voices to deepen, and their body hair to grow.During this period, boys also develop broader shoulders, more muscle tissue, and larger hearts and lungs.Changes in Males–
16What are primary sex characteristics? Reading CheckRecallWhat are primary sex characteristics?Answer: characteristics directly involved in reproduction
17Differences in Maturation Rates Some adolescents reach physical maturity at a relatively early age, while others reach it later.Early-maturing boys may have advantages over their peers who develop later, but these advantages seem to fade over time.Girls who mature early may feel awkward.Once their peers catch up to them, the issue of differences in maturity generally disappears.
18What happens to the advantages of early maturation? Reading CheckFind the Main IdeaWhat happens to the advantages of early maturation?Answer: They fade over time.
19Current Research in Psychology The Adolescent BrainThe adolescent brain is a work in progress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have shown that the teenage brain continues to grow and develop through the teen years. With MRIs, researchers can see how the brain really works. They can see what parts of the brain use energy when performing a particular task.Dr. Jay Gledd’s MRI studies have confirmed that young people’s brains are not fully developed until they reach their early twenties (Gledd et al., 2008)Late development of the prefrontal cortex is one factor in teens’ relatively high rates of injury and accident (Casey et al., 2008)Gledd’s studies help to explain why adolescents and young adults engage in riskier behavior than other people.Some of these behaviors may have as much to do with brain development as with the hormonal changes of puberty.–
21Thinking CriticallyWhy do adolescents sometimes make unwise decisions?What are some of the areas in which you think adolescents should be able to make their own decisions and judgments, based on what you have just read about brain development, impulse control, and risky behavior in adolescents?
22Section 2 at a Glance Social Development Adolescents typically experience a great deal of stress during their teen years, due both to biological and psychological causes.Relationships with parents change during adolescence.Adolescents turn increasingly to their peers for support during adolescence.
23Social Development Main Idea Reading Focus Adolescence is a challenging time during which teenagers must learn new social skills and ways of interacting with others.Reading FocusWhat two factors make adolescence a time of stress and storm?What is the main reason that relationships with parents change during adolescence?Why are relationships with peers so important to adolescents?
25Storm and Stress Biology and Adolescence Psychology and Adolescence Research suggests that hormonal changes of adolescence affect activity levels, mood swings, and aggressive tendencies of many adolescents.However, contemporary studies suggest that cultural and social influences may have more of an effect on adolescent behavior than hormones do.Psychology and AdolescencePsychologically, adolescence ends when people become adults and take on adult responsibilities.How long adolescence lasts varies with each individual.Most teenagers face the many challenges of adolescence and cope with them successfully.
26What do the German words Sturm und Drang mean? Reading CheckDefineWhat do the German words Sturm und Drang mean?Answer: storm and stress
27Relationships with Parents The Quest for IndependenceThe adolescent quest for independence from parents may result in conflicts and less time spent with family, greater emotional attachment to people outside the family, and more activities outside the home.A Lasting BondAdolescents who feel close to their parents tend to show greater self-reliance and independence than those who are distant from their parents.Parents and adolescents usually share similar views.Adolescents tend to interact with their mothers more than with their fathers.
28Why do adolescents often spend less time with their families? Reading CheckSummarizeWhy do adolescents often spend less time with their families?Answer: They want to be more independent, they become emotionally attached to people outside their family, and they become involved in more activities outside the home.
29Relationships with Peers Adolescent FriendshipsFriendship is a very important part of adolescence.Adolescents value loyalty as a key aspect of friendship.Adolescents usually choose friends who are similar to themselves in age, background, educational goals, and attitudes toward drinking, drug use, and sexual activity.Cliques and CrowdsCliques are peer groups of 5 to 10 people who spend a great deal of time together.Larger groups of people who do not spend as much time together but share attitudes and group identity are called crowds.
30Dating and Romantic Relationships Peer InfluencesParental and peer influences often coincide.Nevertheless, adolescents are influenced by their parents and peers in different ways.Peer pressure increases in middle adolescence and then decreases after the age of 17.Dating and Romantic RelationshipsIn younger adolescents, dating relationships tend to be casual and short-lived.In later adolescence, relationships tend to be more stable and committed.
32How do relationships with peers change during adolescence? Reading CheckSummarizeHow do relationships with peers change during adolescence?Answer: it is weak in early adolescence, increases in middle adolescence, then decreases in late adolescence
33Section 3 at a Glance Identity Formation One of the main psychological tasks of adolescence is finding an identity—a sense of who one is and what one stands for.There are four categories of adolescent identity status.Issues of gender and ethnicity play a major role in the formation of identity.
34Identity Formation Main Idea Reading Focus One of the main tasks of adolescence is the search for identity.Reading FocusHow do psychologists view identity development?What is identity status?What roles do gender and ethnicity play in identity formation?
35How did one young man's experiences have a positive impact on his identity?
36Identity DevelopmentPsychologist Erik Erikson maintained that the main task of the adolescent stage is the search for identity.Erikson believed the task is accomplished by choosing and developing a commitment to a particular role or occupation in life.Adolescents may experiment with different values, beliefs, roles, and relationships.Adolescent identity is achieved when different “selves” are brought together into a unified sense of self.An identity crisis is a key aspect of adolescent identity development.An identity crisis is a turning point in a person’s development when the person examines his or her values and makes or changes decisions about life roles.
37Reading CheckRecallAccording to Erikson, what is the main task of the adolescent stage of development?Answer: the search for identity
38Identity Status Identity Moratorium Identity Foreclosure Adolescents experiencing the identity status known as identity moratorium delay making commitments about important questions.Identity ForeclosureTo avoid an identity crisis, adolescents in the identity foreclosure category make a commitment that forecloses, or shuts out, other possibilities.Identity DiffusionAdolescents in identity diffusion seem to be constantly searching for meaning in life because they have not committed themselves to a set of personal beliefs or an occupational path.Identity AchievementAdolescents in the identity achievement category have coped with crises, explored options, committed themselves to occupational directions, and made decisions about key life questions.
40What is an identity moratorium? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat is an identity moratorium?Answer: an identity status category in which adolescents delay making commitments about important questions
41Gender and Ethnicity in Identity Formation Gender and Identity FormationResearch shows that female adolescents are now more apt to approach identity formation like male adolescents.Female adolescents do, however, express more concern about the challenge of balancing work life and family life.Ethnicity and Identity FormationIdentity formation is often more complicated for adolescents from ethnic minority groups.Prejudice and discrimination can be contributing factors.
42Reading CheckCompare and ContrastFor which group of adolescents is identity formation especially complicated?Answer: ethnic minority groups
43Cultural Diversity and Psychology Rites of PassageA rite of passage marks a person’s entrance into a new stage of life. These ceremonies include baptisms, graduations, and marriages. For many people around the world, various rites such as school graduations and weddings signify the end of one period of life and the beginning of another.Most rites of passage have three stages: a separation stage, a transitional stage, and a completion stage.Graduation ceremonies are an example of a rite of passage in which individuals participate as a group.The quinceañera is an example of a rite of passage for Hispanic girls.Jewish adolescents enter into the adult religious community with bar mitzvahs and bat mitzvahs.Genpuku was an ancient rite of passage in Japan. Poy Sang Long is a rite of passage among the Shan people of Myanmar and Thailand.–
46Thinking CriticallyBesides the examples mentioned above, what are some other rites of passage for adolescents in the United States?How do these rites of passage help in the process of identity formation?
47Section 4 at a Glance Challenges of Adolescence Adolescents face many challenges during their teen years.Eating disorders can be one of the big problems of adolescence.Substance abuse can cause many diseases.Many issues surround adolescent sexuality.
48Challenges of Adolescence Main IdeaAdolescence is a difficult time for most teenagers, with concerns about friendships, jobs, future careers, and body image among their many challenges.Reading FocusWhy is adolescence a difficult time?What eating disorders affect adolescents?How can substance abuse be a challenge for adolescents?What issues surround adolescent sexuality?How does crime affect adolescents?
50A Difficult Time Adolescence can be a difficult time for some teens. Challenges of adolescence can include:School problemsFamily problemsLonelinessFeelings of low self-esteemConcerns about the futureEating disordersAlcohol abuseDrug abuse
51What are some causes of stress among adolescents? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat are some causes of stress among adolescents?Answer: school or family problems, loneliness, low self-esteem, concerns about getting a job, supporting family members, and getting into college
52Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa: Eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and a distorted body imageIn the United States, typically affects young white women of higher socioeconomic statusBulimia NervosaBulimia nervosa: Recurrent cycles of binge eating followed by dramatic measures to eliminate foodGreat majority of sufferers are femaleOrigins of Anorexia and BulimiaInfluenced by cultural and social aspects, such as the need to conform to a feminine ideal and a family history of eating disordersTreatmentIncludes counseling, treatment programs, and monitoring
54What are anorexia and bulimia nervosa? Reading CheckDefineWhat are anorexia and bulimia nervosa?Answer: anorexia—eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and distorted body image; bulimia nervosa—eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to eliminate food; fasting, strict dieting, and vigorous exercise
55Substance Abuse Prevalence of Substance Abuse Treatment Use of drugs and cigarettes among teenagers increased during the 1990s.The use of cigarettes and marijuana declined from 2001 to 2007.Peer recommendation, parental use, and stress are among the reasons adolescents try alcohol and other substances.TreatmentTreatment includes detoxification and counseling therapy.
56Drug PreventionMost school drug-prevention programs are aimed at stopping the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana.Research on the effectiveness of prevention programs shows mixed results.
58What are some of the reasons that adolescents try alcohol? Reading CheckRecallWhat are some of the reasons that adolescents try alcohol?Answer: peer recommendation, parental use, to cope with stress
59SexualityMany adolescents struggle with issues of how and when to express their sexual feelings.But they receive mixed messages from their bodies to “go ahead” and at the same time advice from parents and other adults advising against early sexual relationships.The media is also a source of messages about sexual issues.About 7.2 percent of American girls between the ages of 15 and 17 become pregnant each year.Teenage pregnancies can be difficult for adolescent mothers.Half of all adolescent mothers quit school and go on welfare.Teen mothers are more likely to give birth to premature babies and babies who are below average in weight.
61Reading CheckRecallWhat percentage of American girls between 15 and 17 become pregnant each year?Answer: 7.2 percent
62Crime and Avoiding Problems The term juvenile delinquency refers to many illegal activities committed by children or adolescents.The most extreme acts include robbery, rape, and homicide.Less serious offenses are known as status offenses, which are illegal only when committed by minors.Research shows that low income and mothers working outside the home are not factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency.Facts that contribute to juvenile delinquency includeLow self-esteem, feelings of alienation and estrangementBehavior problems that began earlyLack of affection, lax discipline, use of severe physical punishment in the homeAcademic issues, peer pressure, family history of criminal behavior
63What are some examples of status offenses? Reading CheckSummarizeWhat are some examples of status offenses?Answer: truancy, drinking, smoking, running away from home
64Simulation: Applying What You’ve Learned Peer PressureCan you resist peer pressure and stand up for your beliefs even if it means risking an awkward situation or confrontation?You will work in small groups to write peer-pressure scenarios.You will role-play scenarios in front of the class.You will have a class discussion on the effectiveness of refusal skills.1. IntroductionWork with your group to write a plausible peer-pressure scenario.Write the scenario as a dialogue.Hold a class discussion about each group’s scenario. How realistic are they? What techniques were used to try to influence people’s behavior?2. Writing Your Scenario–
65Simulation (cont'd.) Read the refusals skills chart. Take turns role-playing a scenario and use refusal skills to avoid the pressure from three friends to drink alcohol, following the scenario below.Scenario: You are home with a couple of friends. Your parents are out. One friend finds beer in the refrigerator and suggests that you and your friends drink some of it.3. SimulationDiscuss the following questions:How successful was the teen at resisting peer pressure?Were the difficulties of coping with peer pressure accurately presented? Why or why not?Were some successful strategies for coping with peer pressure presented? What were they, and why do you think they were effective?4. Discussion–
66Simulation (cont'd.) 5. Writing Write a couple of paragraphs in which you describe what you think is the best way to respond to peer pressure.5. Writing–