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Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Chapter 11: Adolescence Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the WorldTeenage Employees Around the World Section 1: Physical DevelopmentPhysical Development Section 2: Social DevelopmentSocial Development Section 3: Identity FormationIdentity Formation Section 4: Challenges of AdolescenceChallenges of Adolescence Simulation: Applying What You’ve LearnedApplying What You’ve Learned

2 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Working and the problems that can come with a job are among the challenges facing adolescents today. Young people are following job opportunities to urban areas and more industrialized countries. 16 percent of all children between five and fourteen years old were active in their countries’ economies in Teens Around the World Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World Many teens work in addition to going to school. Today employment is more common among middle-class teenagers. Working can have negative effects on teens. Teens in the United States

3 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. What do you think? How has adolescent employment changed in the United States? Do you think the benefits of teens working long hours during the school year outweigh the disadvantages? Why or why not?

4 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

5 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

6 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Physical Development During the adolescent growth spurt, which lasts two or three years, the average teenager grows 8 to 12 inches in height. Many physical changes take place during adolescence. Maturation rates vary among adolescents. Section 1 at a Glance

7 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus What are the three age category labels between childhood and adulthood? What is the adolescent growth spurt? What does sexual development encompass? What differences in maturation rates occur among adolescents? Main Idea Adolescence is a time of great change, especially in terms of physical development. Physical Development

8 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Why am I always hungry?

9 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. In Western societies today, the status and duties of adulthood have been delayed. Today adolescence is subdivided into three age categories. –Early adolescence (11 through 14) –Middle adolescence (15 through 18) –Late adolescence (18 through 21) From Child to Adult

10 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: early adolescence—11 through 14; middle adolescence— 15 through 18; late adolescence—18 through 21 Recall What are the years of the three age categories of adolescence? Reading Check

11 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The adolescent growth spurt usually lasts two or three years. During this period, most adolescents grow 8 to 12 inches in height. Girls typically begin the adolescent growth spurt earlier than boys. During middle adolescence most boys grow taller than their female counterparts. The exact time when this growth will occur for any adolescent is difficult to predict. Differences Between Boys and Girls The Adolescent Growth Spurt Some teenagers may feel they look awkward, but they actually tend to be well coordinated during adolescence. Proper nutrition is important during the adolescent years. The Awkward Age

12 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

13 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: the period of sudden growth during adolescence Define What is the awkward age? Reading Check

14 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Adolescence begins with puberty, which refers to specific developmental changes that lead to the ability to reproduce. During puberty, adolescents develop primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics. Increased output of testosterone causes boys’ sexual organs to grow, their voices to deepen, and their body hair to grow. During this period, boys also develop broader shoulders, more muscle tissue, and larger hearts and lungs. Changes in Males Sexual Development In girls, increased estrogen spurs the growth of breast tissue. The pelvic region also widens. The cyclical production of estrogen regulates the menstrual cycle. The first cycle is called menarche. Changes in Females

15 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

16 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: characteristics directly involved in reproduction Recall What are primary sex characteristics? Reading Check

17 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Some adolescents reach physical maturity at a relatively early age, while others reach it later. Early-maturing boys may have advantages over their peers who develop later, but these advantages seem to fade over time. Girls who mature early may feel awkward. Once their peers catch up to them, the issue of differences in maturity generally disappears. Differences in Maturation Rates

18 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: They fade over time. Find the Main Idea What happens to the advantages of early maturation? Reading Check

19 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The Adolescent Brain The adolescent brain is a work in progress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have shown that the teenage brain continues to grow and develop through the teen years. With MRIs, researchers can see how the brain really works. They can see what parts of the brain use energy when performing a particular task. Current Research in Psychology Dr. Jay Gledd’s MRI studies have confirmed that young people’s brains are not fully developed until they reach their early twenties (Gledd et al., 2008) Late development of the prefrontal cortex is one factor in teens’ relatively high rates of injury and accident (Casey et al., 2008) Gledd’s studies help to explain why adolescents and young adults engage in riskier behavior than other people. Some of these behaviors may have as much to do with brain development as with the hormonal changes of puberty.

20 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

21 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Thinking Critically Why do adolescents sometimes make unwise decisions? What are some of the areas in which you think adolescents should be able to make their own decisions and judgments, based on what you have just read about brain development, impulse control, and risky behavior in adolescents?

22 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Social Development Adolescents typically experience a great deal of stress during their teen years, due both to biological and psychological causes. Relationships with parents change during adolescence. Adolescents turn increasingly to their peers for support during adolescence. Section 2 at a Glance

23 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus What two factors make adolescence a time of stress and storm? What is the main reason that relationships with parents change during adolescence? Why are relationships with peers so important to adolescents? Main Idea Adolescence is a challenging time during which teenagers must learn new social skills and ways of interacting with others. Social Development

24 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Why are relationships so difficult sometimes?

25 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Biology and Adolescence Research suggests that hormonal changes of adolescence affect activity levels, mood swings, and aggressive tendencies of many adolescents. However, contemporary studies suggest that cultural and social influences may have more of an effect on adolescent behavior than hormones do. Psychology and Adolescence Psychologically, adolescence ends when people become adults and take on adult responsibilities. How long adolescence lasts varies with each individual. Most teenagers face the many challenges of adolescence and cope with them successfully. Storm and Stress

26 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: storm and stress Define What do the German words Sturm und Drang mean? Reading Check

27 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The Quest for Independence The adolescent quest for independence from parents may result in conflicts and less time spent with family, greater emotional attachment to people outside the family, and more activities outside the home. A Lasting Bond Adolescents who feel close to their parents tend to show greater self-reliance and independence than those who are distant from their parents. Parents and adolescents usually share similar views. Adolescents tend to interact with their mothers more than with their fathers. Relationships with Parents

28 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: They want to be more independent, they become emotionally attached to people outside their family, and they become involved in more activities outside the home. Summarize Why do adolescents often spend less time with their families? Reading Check

29 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Cliques and Crowds Cliques are peer groups of 5 to 10 people who spend a great deal of time together. Larger groups of people who do not spend as much time together but share attitudes and group identity are called crowds. Adolescent Friendships Friendship is a very important part of adolescence. Adolescents value loyalty as a key aspect of friendship. Adolescents usually choose friends who are similar to themselves in age, background, educational goals, and attitudes toward drinking, drug use, and sexual activity. Relationships with Peers

30 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Dating and Romantic Relationships In younger adolescents, dating relationships tend to be casual and short-lived. In later adolescence, relationships tend to be more stable and committed. Peer Influences Parental and peer influences often coincide. Nevertheless, adolescents are influenced by their parents and peers in different ways. Peer pressure increases in middle adolescence and then decreases after the age of 17.

31 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

32 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: it is weak in early adolescence, increases in middle adolescence, then decreases in late adolescence Summarize How do relationships with peers change during adolescence? Reading Check

33 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Identity Formation One of the main psychological tasks of adolescence is finding an identity—a sense of who one is and what one stands for. There are four categories of adolescent identity status. Issues of gender and ethnicity play a major role in the formation of identity. Section 3 at a Glance

34 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus How do psychologists view identity development? What is identity status? What roles do gender and ethnicity play in identity formation? Main Idea One of the main tasks of adolescence is the search for identity. Identity Formation

35 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. How did one young man's experiences have a positive impact on his identity?

36 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Psychologist Erik Erikson maintained that the main task of the adolescent stage is the search for identity. Erikson believed the task is accomplished by choosing and developing a commitment to a particular role or occupation in life. Adolescents may experiment with different values, beliefs, roles, and relationships. Adolescent identity is achieved when different “selves” are brought together into a unified sense of self. An identity crisis is a key aspect of adolescent identity development. An identity crisis is a turning point in a person’s development when the person examines his or her values and makes or changes decisions about life roles. Identity Development

37 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: the search for identity Recall According to Erikson, what is the main task of the adolescent stage of development? Reading Check

38 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Identity Moratorium Adolescents experiencing the identity status known as identity moratorium delay making commitments about important questions. Identity Diffusion Adolescents in identity diffusion seem to be constantly searching for meaning in life because they have not committed themselves to a set of personal beliefs or an occupational path. Identity Foreclosure To avoid an identity crisis, adolescents in the identity foreclosure category make a commitment that forecloses, or shuts out, other possibilities. Identity Achievement Adolescents in the identity achievement category have coped with crises, explored options, committed themselves to occupational directions, and made decisions about key life questions. Identity Status

39 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Click on the image to play the Interactive.

40 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: an identity status category in which adolescents delay making commitments about important questions Summarize What is an identity moratorium? Reading Check

41 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Ethnicity and Identity Formation Identity formation is often more complicated for adolescents from ethnic minority groups. Prejudice and discrimination can be contributing factors. Gender and Identity Formation Research shows that female adolescents are now more apt to approach identity formation like male adolescents. Female adolescents do, however, express more concern about the challenge of balancing work life and family life. Gender and Ethnicity in Identity Formation

42 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: ethnic minority groups Compare and Contrast For which group of adolescents is identity formation especially complicated? Reading Check

43 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Rites of Passage A rite of passage marks a person’s entrance into a new stage of life. These ceremonies include baptisms, graduations, and marriages. For many people around the world, various rites such as school graduations and weddings signify the end of one period of life and the beginning of another. Cultural Diversity and Psychology Most rites of passage have three stages: a separation stage, a transitional stage, and a completion stage. Graduation ceremonies are an example of a rite of passage in which individuals participate as a group. The quinceañera is an example of a rite of passage for Hispanic girls. Jewish adolescents enter into the adult religious community with bar mitzvahs and bat mitzvahs. Genpuku was an ancient rite of passage in Japan. Poy Sang Long is a rite of passage among the Shan people of Myanmar and Thailand.

44 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

45 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

46 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Thinking Critically Besides the examples mentioned above, what are some other rites of passage for adolescents in the United States? How do these rites of passage help in the process of identity formation?

47 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Challenges of Adolescence Adolescents face many challenges during their teen years. Eating disorders can be one of the big problems of adolescence. Substance abuse can cause many diseases. Many issues surround adolescent sexuality. Section 4 at a Glance

48 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Reading Focus Why is adolescence a difficult time? What eating disorders affect adolescents? How can substance abuse be a challenge for adolescents? What issues surround adolescent sexuality? How does crime affect adolescents? Main Idea Adolescence is a difficult time for most teenagers, with concerns about friendships, jobs, future careers, and body image among their many challenges. Challenges of Adolescence

49 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. How can a doll help prevent teen pregnancy?

50 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Adolescence can be a difficult time for some teens. Challenges of adolescence can include: –School problems –Family problems –Loneliness –Feelings of low self-esteem –Concerns about the future –Eating disorders –Alcohol abuse –Drug abuse A Difficult Time

51 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: school or family problems, loneliness, low self- esteem, concerns about getting a job, supporting family members, and getting into college Summarize What are some causes of stress among adolescents? Reading Check

52 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa: Eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and a distorted body image In the United States, typically affects young white women of higher socioeconomic status Origins of Anorexia and Bulimia Influenced by cultural and social aspects, such as the need to conform to a feminine ideal and a family history of eating disorders Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa: Recurrent cycles of binge eating followed by dramatic measures to eliminate food Great majority of sufferers are female Treatment Includes counseling, treatment programs, and monitoring Eating Disorders

53 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

54 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: anorexia—eating disorder characterized by self- starvation and distorted body image; bulimia nervosa— eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to eliminate food; fasting, strict dieting, and vigorous exercise Define What are anorexia and bulimia nervosa? Reading Check

55 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Treatment Treatment includes detoxification and counseling therapy. Prevalence of Substance Abuse Use of drugs and cigarettes among teenagers increased during the 1990s. The use of cigarettes and marijuana declined from 2001 to Peer recommendation, parental use, and stress are among the reasons adolescents try alcohol and other substances. Substance Abuse

56 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Drug Prevention Most school drug-prevention programs are aimed at stopping the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Research on the effectiveness of prevention programs shows mixed results.

57 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

58 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: peer recommendation, parental use, to cope with stress Recall What are some of the reasons that adolescents try alcohol? Reading Check

59 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Many adolescents struggle with issues of how and when to express their sexual feelings. But they receive mixed messages from their bodies to “go ahead” and at the same time advice from parents and other adults advising against early sexual relationships. The media is also a source of messages about sexual issues. About 7.2 percent of American girls between the ages of 15 and 17 become pregnant each year. Teenage pregnancies can be difficult for adolescent mothers. –Half of all adolescent mothers quit school and go on welfare. –Teen mothers are more likely to give birth to premature babies and babies who are below average in weight. Sexuality

60 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

61 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: 7.2 percent Recall What percentage of American girls between 15 and 17 become pregnant each year? Reading Check

62 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. The term juvenile delinquency refers to many illegal activities committed by children or adolescents. The most extreme acts include robbery, rape, and homicide. Less serious offenses are known as status offenses, which are illegal only when committed by minors. Research shows that low income and mothers working outside the home are not factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency. Facts that contribute to juvenile delinquency include –Low self-esteem, feelings of alienation and estrangement –Behavior problems that began early –Lack of affection, lax discipline, use of severe physical punishment in the home –Academic issues, peer pressure, family history of criminal behavior Crime and Avoiding Problems

63 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Answer: truancy, drinking, smoking, running away from home Summarize What are some examples of status offenses? Reading Check

64 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Peer Pressure Can you resist peer pressure and stand up for your beliefs even if it means risking an awkward situation or confrontation? You will work in small groups to write peer-pressure scenarios. You will role-play scenarios in front of the class. You will have a class discussion on the effectiveness of refusal skills. 1. Introduction Simulation: Applying What You’ve Learned Work with your group to write a plausible peer-pressure scenario. Write the scenario as a dialogue. Hold a class discussion about each group’s scenario. How realistic are they? What techniques were used to try to influence people’s behavior? 2. Writing Your Scenario

65 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Read the refusals skills chart. Take turns role-playing a scenario and use refusal skills to avoid the pressure from three friends to drink alcohol, following the scenario below. Scenario: You are home with a couple of friends. Your parents are out. One friend finds beer in the refrigerator and suggests that you and your friends drink some of it. 3. Simulation Simulation (cont'd.) Discuss the following questions: How successful was the teen at resisting peer pressure? Were the difficulties of coping with peer pressure accurately presented? Why or why not? Were some successful strategies for coping with peer pressure presented? What were they, and why do you think they were effective? 4. Discussion

66 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor. Write a couple of paragraphs in which you describe what you think is the best way to respond to peer pressure. 5. Writing Simulation (cont'd.)

67 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.

68 Adolescence Original Content Copyright by HOLT McDougal. Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.


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