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Chapter 11: Adolescence Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World

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1 Chapter 11: Adolescence Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World
Section 1: Physical Development Section 2: Social Development Section 3: Identity Formation Section 4: Challenges of Adolescence Simulation: Applying What You’ve Learned

2 Case Study: Teenage Employees Around the World
Working and the problems that can come with a job are among the challenges facing adolescents today. Young people are following job opportunities to urban areas and more industrialized countries. 16 percent of all children between five and fourteen years old were active in their countries’ economies in 2004. Teens Around the World Many teens work in addition to going to school. Today employment is more common among middle-class teenagers. Working can have negative effects on teens. Teens in the United States

3 What do you think? How has adolescent employment changed in the United States? Do you think the benefits of teens working long hours during the school year outweigh the disadvantages? Why or why not?



6 Section 1 at a Glance Physical Development
During the adolescent growth spurt, which lasts two or three years, the average teenager grows 8 to 12 inches in height. Many physical changes take place during adolescence. Maturation rates vary among adolescents.

7 Physical Development Main Idea Reading Focus
Adolescence is a time of great change, especially in terms of physical development. Reading Focus What are the three age category labels between childhood and adulthood? What is the adolescent growth spurt? What does sexual development encompass? What differences in maturation rates occur among adolescents?

8 Why am I always hungry?

9 From Child to Adult In Western societies today, the status and duties of adulthood have been delayed. Today adolescence is subdivided into three age categories. Early adolescence (11 through 14) Middle adolescence (15 through 18) Late adolescence (18 through 21)

10 What are the years of the three age categories of adolescence?
Reading Check Recall What are the years of the three age categories of adolescence? Answer: early adolescence—11 through 14; middle adolescence—15 through 18; late adolescence—18 through 21

11 The Adolescent Growth Spurt
The adolescent growth spurt usually lasts two or three years. During this period, most adolescents grow 8 to 12 inches in height. Girls typically begin the adolescent growth spurt earlier than boys. During middle adolescence most boys grow taller than their female counterparts. The exact time when this growth will occur for any adolescent is difficult to predict. Differences Between Boys and Girls Some teenagers may feel they look awkward, but they actually tend to be well coordinated during adolescence. Proper nutrition is important during the adolescent years. The Awkward Age


13 Define What is the awkward age? Reading Check
Answer: the period of sudden growth during adolescence

14 Sexual Development Adolescence begins with puberty, which refers to specific developmental changes that lead to the ability to reproduce. During puberty, adolescents develop primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics. In girls, increased estrogen spurs the growth of breast tissue. The pelvic region also widens. The cyclical production of estrogen regulates the menstrual cycle. The first cycle is called menarche. Changes in Females Increased output of testosterone causes boys’ sexual organs to grow, their voices to deepen, and their body hair to grow. During this period, boys also develop broader shoulders, more muscle tissue, and larger hearts and lungs. Changes in Males


16 What are primary sex characteristics?
Reading Check Recall What are primary sex characteristics? Answer: characteristics directly involved in reproduction

17 Differences in Maturation Rates
Some adolescents reach physical maturity at a relatively early age, while others reach it later. Early-maturing boys may have advantages over their peers who develop later, but these advantages seem to fade over time. Girls who mature early may feel awkward. Once their peers catch up to them, the issue of differences in maturity generally disappears.

18 What happens to the advantages of early maturation?
Reading Check Find the Main Idea What happens to the advantages of early maturation? Answer: They fade over time.

19 Current Research in Psychology
The Adolescent Brain The adolescent brain is a work in progress. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have shown that the teenage brain continues to grow and develop through the teen years. With MRIs, researchers can see how the brain really works. They can see what parts of the brain use energy when performing a particular task. Dr. Jay Gledd’s MRI studies have confirmed that young people’s brains are not fully developed until they reach their early twenties (Gledd et al., 2008) Late development of the prefrontal cortex is one factor in teens’ relatively high rates of injury and accident (Casey et al., 2008) Gledd’s studies help to explain why adolescents and young adults engage in riskier behavior than other people. Some of these behaviors may have as much to do with brain development as with the hormonal changes of puberty.


21 Thinking Critically Why do adolescents sometimes make unwise decisions? What are some of the areas in which you think adolescents should be able to make their own decisions and judgments, based on what you have just read about brain development, impulse control, and risky behavior in adolescents?

22 Section 2 at a Glance Social Development
Adolescents typically experience a great deal of stress during their teen years, due both to biological and psychological causes. Relationships with parents change during adolescence. Adolescents turn increasingly to their peers for support during adolescence.

23 Social Development Main Idea Reading Focus
Adolescence is a challenging time during which teenagers must learn new social skills and ways of interacting with others. Reading Focus What two factors make adolescence a time of stress and storm? What is the main reason that relationships with parents change during adolescence? Why are relationships with peers so important to adolescents?

24 Why are relationships so difficult sometimes?

25 Storm and Stress Biology and Adolescence Psychology and Adolescence
Research suggests that hormonal changes of adolescence affect activity levels, mood swings, and aggressive tendencies of many adolescents. However, contemporary studies suggest that cultural and social influences may have more of an effect on adolescent behavior than hormones do. Psychology and Adolescence Psychologically, adolescence ends when people become adults and take on adult responsibilities. How long adolescence lasts varies with each individual. Most teenagers face the many challenges of adolescence and cope with them successfully.

26 What do the German words Sturm und Drang mean?
Reading Check Define What do the German words Sturm und Drang mean? Answer: storm and stress

27 Relationships with Parents
The Quest for Independence The adolescent quest for independence from parents may result in conflicts and less time spent with family, greater emotional attachment to people outside the family, and more activities outside the home. A Lasting Bond Adolescents who feel close to their parents tend to show greater self-reliance and independence than those who are distant from their parents. Parents and adolescents usually share similar views. Adolescents tend to interact with their mothers more than with their fathers.

28 Why do adolescents often spend less time with their families?
Reading Check Summarize Why do adolescents often spend less time with their families? Answer: They want to be more independent, they become emotionally attached to people outside their family, and they become involved in more activities outside the home.

29 Relationships with Peers
Adolescent Friendships Friendship is a very important part of adolescence. Adolescents value loyalty as a key aspect of friendship. Adolescents usually choose friends who are similar to themselves in age, background, educational goals, and attitudes toward drinking, drug use, and sexual activity. Cliques and Crowds Cliques are peer groups of 5 to 10 people who spend a great deal of time together. Larger groups of people who do not spend as much time together but share attitudes and group identity are called crowds.

30 Dating and Romantic Relationships
Peer Influences Parental and peer influences often coincide. Nevertheless, adolescents are influenced by their parents and peers in different ways. Peer pressure increases in middle adolescence and then decreases after the age of 17. Dating and Romantic Relationships In younger adolescents, dating relationships tend to be casual and short-lived. In later adolescence, relationships tend to be more stable and committed.


32 How do relationships with peers change during adolescence?
Reading Check Summarize How do relationships with peers change during adolescence? Answer: it is weak in early adolescence, increases in middle adolescence, then decreases in late adolescence

33 Section 3 at a Glance Identity Formation
One of the main psychological tasks of adolescence is finding an identity—a sense of who one is and what one stands for. There are four categories of adolescent identity status. Issues of gender and ethnicity play a major role in the formation of identity.

34 Identity Formation Main Idea Reading Focus
One of the main tasks of adolescence is the search for identity. Reading Focus How do psychologists view identity development? What is identity status? What roles do gender and ethnicity play in identity formation?

35 How did one young man's experiences have a positive impact on his identity?

36 Identity Development Psychologist Erik Erikson maintained that the main task of the adolescent stage is the search for identity. Erikson believed the task is accomplished by choosing and developing a commitment to a particular role or occupation in life. Adolescents may experiment with different values, beliefs, roles, and relationships. Adolescent identity is achieved when different “selves” are brought together into a unified sense of self. An identity crisis is a key aspect of adolescent identity development. An identity crisis is a turning point in a person’s development when the person examines his or her values and makes or changes decisions about life roles.

37 Reading Check Recall According to Erikson, what is the main task of the adolescent stage of development? Answer: the search for identity

38 Identity Status Identity Moratorium Identity Foreclosure
Adolescents experiencing the identity status known as identity moratorium delay making commitments about important questions. Identity Foreclosure To avoid an identity crisis, adolescents in the identity foreclosure category make a commitment that forecloses, or shuts out, other possibilities. Identity Diffusion Adolescents in identity diffusion seem to be constantly searching for meaning in life because they have not committed themselves to a set of personal beliefs or an occupational path. Identity Achievement Adolescents in the identity achievement category have coped with crises, explored options, committed themselves to occupational directions, and made decisions about key life questions.

39 Click on the image to play the Interactive.

40 What is an identity moratorium?
Reading Check Summarize What is an identity moratorium? Answer: an identity status category in which adolescents delay making commitments about important questions

41 Gender and Ethnicity in Identity Formation
Gender and Identity Formation Research shows that female adolescents are now more apt to approach identity formation like male adolescents. Female adolescents do, however, express more concern about the challenge of balancing work life and family life. Ethnicity and Identity Formation Identity formation is often more complicated for adolescents from ethnic minority groups. Prejudice and discrimination can be contributing factors.

42 Reading Check Compare and Contrast For which group of adolescents is identity formation especially complicated? Answer: ethnic minority groups

43 Cultural Diversity and Psychology
Rites of Passage A rite of passage marks a person’s entrance into a new stage of life. These ceremonies include baptisms, graduations, and marriages. For many people around the world, various rites such as school graduations and weddings signify the end of one period of life and the beginning of another. Most rites of passage have three stages: a separation stage, a transitional stage, and a completion stage. Graduation ceremonies are an example of a rite of passage in which individuals participate as a group. The quinceañera is an example of a rite of passage for Hispanic girls. Jewish adolescents enter into the adult religious community with bar mitzvahs and bat mitzvahs. Genpuku was an ancient rite of passage in Japan. Poy Sang Long is a rite of passage among the Shan people of Myanmar and Thailand.



46 Thinking Critically Besides the examples mentioned above, what are some other rites of passage for adolescents in the United States? How do these rites of passage help in the process of identity formation?

47 Section 4 at a Glance Challenges of Adolescence
Adolescents face many challenges during their teen years. Eating disorders can be one of the big problems of adolescence. Substance abuse can cause many diseases. Many issues surround adolescent sexuality.

48 Challenges of Adolescence
Main Idea Adolescence is a difficult time for most teenagers, with concerns about friendships, jobs, future careers, and body image among their many challenges. Reading Focus Why is adolescence a difficult time? What eating disorders affect adolescents? How can substance abuse be a challenge for adolescents? What issues surround adolescent sexuality? How does crime affect adolescents?

49 How can a doll help prevent teen pregnancy?

50 A Difficult Time Adolescence can be a difficult time for some teens.
Challenges of adolescence can include: School problems Family problems Loneliness Feelings of low self-esteem Concerns about the future Eating disorders Alcohol abuse Drug abuse

51 What are some causes of stress among adolescents?
Reading Check Summarize What are some causes of stress among adolescents? Answer: school or family problems, loneliness, low self-esteem, concerns about getting a job, supporting family members, and getting into college

52 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa: Eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and a distorted body image In the United States, typically affects young white women of higher socioeconomic status Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa: Recurrent cycles of binge eating followed by dramatic measures to eliminate food Great majority of sufferers are female Origins of Anorexia and Bulimia Influenced by cultural and social aspects, such as the need to conform to a feminine ideal and a family history of eating disorders Treatment Includes counseling, treatment programs, and monitoring


54 What are anorexia and bulimia nervosa?
Reading Check Define What are anorexia and bulimia nervosa? Answer: anorexia—eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and distorted body image; bulimia nervosa—eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to eliminate food; fasting, strict dieting, and vigorous exercise

55 Substance Abuse Prevalence of Substance Abuse Treatment
Use of drugs and cigarettes among teenagers increased during the 1990s. The use of cigarettes and marijuana declined from 2001 to 2007. Peer recommendation, parental use, and stress are among the reasons adolescents try alcohol and other substances. Treatment Treatment includes detoxification and counseling therapy.

56 Drug Prevention Most school drug-prevention programs are aimed at stopping the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Research on the effectiveness of prevention programs shows mixed results.


58 What are some of the reasons that adolescents try alcohol?
Reading Check Recall What are some of the reasons that adolescents try alcohol? Answer: peer recommendation, parental use, to cope with stress

59 Sexuality Many adolescents struggle with issues of how and when to express their sexual feelings. But they receive mixed messages from their bodies to “go ahead” and at the same time advice from parents and other adults advising against early sexual relationships. The media is also a source of messages about sexual issues. About 7.2 percent of American girls between the ages of 15 and 17 become pregnant each year. Teenage pregnancies can be difficult for adolescent mothers. Half of all adolescent mothers quit school and go on welfare. Teen mothers are more likely to give birth to premature babies and babies who are below average in weight.


61 Reading Check Recall What percentage of American girls between 15 and 17 become pregnant each year? Answer: 7.2 percent

62 Crime and Avoiding Problems
The term juvenile delinquency refers to many illegal activities committed by children or adolescents. The most extreme acts include robbery, rape, and homicide. Less serious offenses are known as status offenses, which are illegal only when committed by minors. Research shows that low income and mothers working outside the home are not factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency. Facts that contribute to juvenile delinquency include Low self-esteem, feelings of alienation and estrangement Behavior problems that began early Lack of affection, lax discipline, use of severe physical punishment in the home Academic issues, peer pressure, family history of criminal behavior

63 What are some examples of status offenses?
Reading Check Summarize What are some examples of status offenses? Answer: truancy, drinking, smoking, running away from home

64 Simulation: Applying What You’ve Learned
Peer Pressure Can you resist peer pressure and stand up for your beliefs even if it means risking an awkward situation or confrontation? You will work in small groups to write peer-pressure scenarios. You will role-play scenarios in front of the class. You will have a class discussion on the effectiveness of refusal skills. 1. Introduction Work with your group to write a plausible peer-pressure scenario. Write the scenario as a dialogue. Hold a class discussion about each group’s scenario. How realistic are they? What techniques were used to try to influence people’s behavior? 2. Writing Your Scenario

65 Simulation (cont'd.) Read the refusals skills chart.
Take turns role-playing a scenario and use refusal skills to avoid the pressure from three friends to drink alcohol, following the scenario below. Scenario: You are home with a couple of friends. Your parents are out. One friend finds beer in the refrigerator and suggests that you and your friends drink some of it. 3. Simulation Discuss the following questions: How successful was the teen at resisting peer pressure? Were the difficulties of coping with peer pressure accurately presented? Why or why not? Were some successful strategies for coping with peer pressure presented? What were they, and why do you think they were effective? 4. Discussion

66 Simulation (cont'd.) 5. Writing
Write a couple of paragraphs in which you describe what you think is the best way to respond to peer pressure. 5. Writing



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