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© West Educational Publishing Adolescence C HAPTER 11 I mportant changes occur during adoles- cence. Teens grow physically, psychologically, socially, intellectually, and morally. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Defining Adolescence Adolescence describes the period from 11 to 19 years. Sometimes it is divided into three subgroups: early adolescence (11-14 years) middle adolescence (14-16 years) late adolescence (16-19 years) EXIT
© West Educational Publishing In females, breast development and the start of menstruation occur. In males there are noticeable voice changes and the development of facial hair and thicker body hair. Both sexes begin sex organ maturation and the growth of pubic hair. In addition, hormones cause some skin problems and increased perspiration. Physical Development The pituitary gland secretes growth hormones and increases the production of other hormones in other glands. Adrenaline from the adrenal glands and sex hormones from the gonads work with the pituitary for sexual maturation. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Growth Changes There is rapid growth at this time called a growth spurt. Unfortunately, arms, hands, and legs don’t all grow in proportion. Young people may feel clumsy because of the uneven growth. Growth spurts occur earlier in adolescence for girls than for boys. Boys usually exhibit this growth between the ages of 11-15 years. Girls will grow as much as three inches while boys grow four inches during a growth spurt. one two three four five six EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Early and Late Maturation Changes EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Bulimia is characterized by overeating (bingeing) and induced (forced) vomiting. 80-85% of bulimics are female Low self-esteem is a major factor Males lose weight for sport competition Causes irritation to the throat and mouth and future digestive problems Causes erosion to the teeth enamel Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa An anorexic is defined as a person who has stopped eating and is at least 25% underweight. Anorexics have low self-esteem and a distorted body image. They see themselves as being overweight. Every system in the body can be damaged. As the body adjusts to extremely low food intake, it becomes unable to handle nourishment except in very, very small amounts. As with bulimia, most victims are female. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Adolescents and Identity When adolescents belong to a group, clique, or gang, they adopt its dress code, use its slang, and engage in its “approved” activities. Group identity versus alienation theory states that identifying with a group is healthy and helps later with identity formation. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Theories in Personality Development EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Erik Erikson and Individual Identity Erikson proposed that the development of a sense of self was the major psychological goal of the teenage years. Failure to meet this goal leads to identity confusion. Some adolescents delay assuming adult responsibilities until their identity is clearer (moratorium). Who am I? EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Individual Identity and James Marcia Identity diffusion - the state of not having a clear idea of identity and not trying to find one Identity foreclosure - the state of accepting the identity and values given without question or exploration Moratorium - the period of looking for identity through experimentation and trial and error Identity achievement - the state of going through identity crisis and coming out with a well-defined self-concept Expanded on Erikson’s work on identity crisis. I am who I am! EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Intellectual and Moral Changes Agreement and general reasoning abilities reach peaks during adolescence. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Jean Piaget Young people begin to engage in formal operational thinking. They begin to think in abstract ways. They test hypotheses. They begin to think about personal principles as more important than external rules. Piaget described his Formal Operations stage (11 years old and on): EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Lawrence Kohlberg and the Postconventional Level (11 years and on) Adolescents make decisions based on principles about right and wrong. Deciding right from wrong involves the use of social contracts. This is agreeing to a principle because it is best for the group as a whole. Decisions are also made based on universal ethical principles that use concepts like justice and honor as guidelines. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing For early adolescents, the immediate past and the present are more important than the future. Although young people have the same basic values as their parents, some family conflict is unavoidable and necessary to encourage independence. The Family’s Influence EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Juvenile Delinquency A father who is aggressive, irresponsible, detached and unaffectionate increases the chance that the children will have problems. Family factors such as poor communication, chaos, and high levels of conflict increase chances of delinquency. Poor communication, abusive relationships, and little affection also encourage delinquent behavior. Factors Associated with Delinquency * The most successful programs to lower delinquency are aimed at expectant parents. EXIT
© West Educational Publishing Summary of Main Topics Covered Physical Developments Eating Disorders Conformity and Group Identity Intellectual and Moral Changes Juvenile Delinquency EXIT
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