Presentation on theme: "Immigration 1880 - 1920. Old Immigrants 1800 - 1880 10 million Came from Northern and Western Europe U.K. Netherlands, German States, Sweden, Norway Protestant."— Presentation transcript:
Old Immigrants 1800 - 1880 10 million Came from Northern and Western Europe U.K. Netherlands, German States, Sweden, Norway Protestant Christians Came to U.S. = to have a voice in government, escape political turmoil, for religious freedom Irish came to escape poverty and starvation
Old Immigrants cont Chinese arrive in 1840 - 1850, 25,000 seeking gold Later build railroads, found employment as farmers, miners, domestic servants
New Immigrants 1880 - 1910 18 million Came from Southern and Eastern Europe Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Russian, Slovak Roman Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Jews, Arab, Armenian Majority came to seek religious freedom Some came because of poverty, and economic opportunities
Trip to America 1st approved by ships captain Had to have $30 cash Paperwork stating they were never in prison, poorhouse, or mental institution Medical Exam Most traveled in steerage
Ellis Island Located: New York harbor 20% of people entering Island were detained and questioned further. 2% of those entering were sent home Sent away because of crimes, health, literacy, or money From 1892-1924; 17 million people passed through Ellis Island
Angel Island Located: In San Francisco Bay Not as nice as Ellis Island and rules were more strict, conditions were less sanitary, and people less friendly 1910-1940; 50,000 immigrants entered the U.S.
Sticking together Immigrants flock to communities where their culture is represented Settled for low paying jobs Form churches Benevolent societies created to helped immigrants obtain jobs, health care, or education.
Nativists Nativism: overt favoritism toward native-born Americans. They want them to go back because they take jobs from native born Americans
Nativists continued Restriction League: Stated people from British, German and Scandinavia were acceptable. Stated people from Slav, Latin, and Asia were unacceptable. Stated that Protestant was the superior religion and Roman Catholic and Jewish people were corrupting America.
Nativists organize Denis Kearney in 1870 starts the Workingmen’s Party Unemployed workers organize to not allow Chinese immigrants to work in California California state constitution in 1879 prohibited Chinese from holding a state job And Chinese could be banned from communities and districts
Hatred of Foreigners Anti-Asian Sentiment formed because they would work for lower wages. Chinese Exclusion Act: Act banned entry to all Chinese except students, teacher and merchants, tourists, and government officials. 1882 starts and ends in 1942.
Japanese limitations Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japanese agreed to limit immigration of unskilled workers to the U.S. in exchange for the repeal of the below Act. San Francisco Segregation Act: all Japanese students were put in their own schools.
New Tests 1917 Congress passes a literacy test act. All immigrants must pass a literacy test before entering the U.S.
Being Accepted Americanization movement: Citizens and government want immigrants to learn English, American History, Government, Cooking, and Social Etiquette.
New Make-up of U.S. Melting Pot: a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and cultures. Many Immigrants did not want to give up their cultures to fit in.
Change in Cities Elisha Otis - Builds the safety elevator
Urban Problem Tenements: multifamily urban dwellings. Mass Transit: trains, street cars; cities could not keep them repaired. Safe drinking water was a problem Few buildings had indoor plumbing. Bad Sanitation High Crime Fires
Reform Social Gospel Movement: salvation through service to the poor. Formed settlement houses; or homes for the poor. Run by middle-class college educated women.
Jane Addams Hull House 1889 in Chicago. 1910; 400 settlement houses were across the country.
Political Machine Organized group that controlled the activities of a political party. Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for financial and political support.
City Boss Ward Boss Local Prescient Workers = Control of Political Candidate Or Political Party Immigrant Voters Fuel the Political Machine Political Machine
Political Machine Parts Top Level = City boss was at the top; controlled the activities of the political party in a city. Middle Level = Ward boss gain votes by providing services. Bottom Level = local precinct workers and captains who tried to gain voters support on a city block or neighborhood and reported to a ward boss.
Parts continued 3 levels worked together to elect their candidates “Political Candidate” and guarantee the success of their machine. Bosses could gain money and power. Immigrants were granted help with citizenship in exchange for votes.
Ways to use the machine Graft = illegal use of political influence for personal gain Workers would bill the city for more than the actual cost of the job and the leaders would get a kick back.
Boss Tweed William M. Tweed Head of Political Machine named Tammany Hall, New York City Democratic party
Tweed Scandal Build New York Courthouse for $13 million but it only cost $3 million. Tweed and his men got the other $10 million Bribed Politicians, Judges, Police, and Citizens
Thomas Nast A political cartoonist for Harpers Weekly newspaper broke the story of Tweeds corruption.
Tweed Scandal Tweed offered Nast $5 million not to publish the corrupting material. Offered $500,000 to stop printing political cartoons against him. 1871 Tweed is charged with 120 counts of fraud and extortion. Sentenced to 12 years, got out in 1. Sentenced to a second but escaped. Captured in Spain in 1878 and died in jail.
Job Allocation Patronage: giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected. Civil Service: jobs should go to the most qualified person. Pendleton Civil Service Act: a commission is set up to give out federal jobs to those who are best qualified.
Grant Scandals Crédit Mobilier construction company set up by Union Pacific Railroad It was to build part of the Transcontinental R&R They charged $23 Mil more than necessary Gave stock to members of congress and the Vice Pres Schuyler Colfax
Presidential Reform Rutherford B. Hayes went though New York and fired corrupt customhouse workers. Executive order issued stating government employees could not manage political parties or campaigns. Roscoe Conkling a New York Senator hated this and organized his group the Stalwarts to help find a new president in 1880.
Presidential Reform Cont. James A. Garfield is the Republican nominee and Chester A. Arthur is his Vice Pres, a Conkling supporter. July 2 1881 President Garfield is shot by Charles Guiteau, and dies September 19th. Chester A. Arthur changes and starts to Reform.
Populist Party Party for the People Called for income tax Bank Regulation Government ownership of the R&R and telegraph companies Free unlimited coinage of silver Bimetallism = use of gold and silver to back paper money.
Farmers Farmers prices for crops were falling Farmers barrow money to buy new equipment to plant more Prices drop further because of over production Farmers also pay large rates to R&R to ship goods Causing farmers to not pay back loans
National Grange Farmers organize to help each other 1st organization was the Order of Patrons of Husbandry or National Grange Oliver Hudson Kelly in 1867 Fought against R&R high rates
Farmers Alliance Lobbied for banking reform and regulation of R&R rates Helped farmers buy equipment Helped farmers sell goods at market Wanted government to print more money “ thought more money would inflate the price of goods”
Laws Munn v. Illinois = state legislatures did have the right to regulate businesses that involved the public interest Wabash v. Illinois = federal government had power to regulate R&R traffic moving across state boundaries Interstate Commerce Act 1887 made railroad rates fair for all customers also created the ICC to enforce the laws
Panic of 1893 R&R companies failed Investors pull out of stock market and businesses collapsed 3 million people lost jobs Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 = required U.S. to pay for silver with paper money redeemable in either gold or silver. New silver is found making silver worthless
Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan = Dem/Populist William McKinley = Rep Bryan wanted unlimited coinage of silver to put more money in circulation. McKinley wanted only paper money backed by gold.
Election of 1896 William McKinley wins The Gold Standard would allow only as much money in circulation as gold in the treasury to back it up Reduced the number of paper dollars in circulation
Segregation Poll Tax = Pay to vote and pass a literacy test Grandfather Clause = men could vote if their father or grandfather had been eligible to vote before Jan 1, 1867. Jim Crow Laws = laws to enforce segregation in the south which created separate facilities for blacks and whites. Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 = Native American citizenship
Segregation Plessy v. Ferguson = “separate but equal” is legal Racial etiquette = blacks were supposed to know their place and defer to whites in every encounter. Lynching = racial hanging or murder Debt peonage = workers were tied to their jobs until they could pay off their debts.
Black Leaders Booker T. Washington Created Tuskegee Institute in Alabama = technical school Thought blacks would prosper through farming and vocational skills
Black Leaders W.E.B. Du Bois Created NAACP Harvard trained Niagara Movement = protested discrimination Though blacks should be well educated Blacks should be uplifted by their most educated leaders