Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE The American Nation In the Modern Era4/21/2017Chapter 8 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGESection 1: Political MachinesSection 2: Restoring Honest GovernmentSection 3: The Populist MovementCHAPTER 8--POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE
2 Political Machines SECTION 1 POLITICAL MACHINES AND IMMIGRANTS Why Immigrants Were Important to MachinesWays in Which Machines Recruited and Rewarded Immigrants• welcomed immigrants upon arrival• found immigrants temporary housing and jobs• helped immigrants become naturalized citizens• helped immigrants with finances, funerals, and so on• represented a huge supply of supporters and voters• tended to be particularly loyal to machines/ POLITICAL PARTIESPOLITICAL MACHINES AND IMMIGRANTS
3 Political machines Section 1: Political Machines during the late 1800’s well-organized political parties dominated city governments in the U.S. because of their success in getting their members elected to local political offices, these parties were called political machines.Political machines controlled votes by offering jobs, political favors, and services to loyal supporters.
4 “ I know what Parks (NYC Politician) is doing, but what do I care “ I know what Parks (NYC Politician) is doing, but what do I care? He has raised my wages. Let him have his (illegal gains)Bosses may dictate voting patterns, control appointments, and wield considerable influence in other political processes. They do not necessarily hold public office themselves. In fact, most historical bosses did not. `
6 Importance of immigrants Section 1: Political Machineseasily accessible—could be welcomed on arrivalhad many needs for housing, jobs, and servicesrepresented a huge supply of supporters and voterstended to be loyal to machines
7 I am the BOSS of this Boat YOU CAN CALL ME SKIPPERBECAUSE THE WAY I TURN THIS MONEY OVER YOU CAN CALL ME FLIPPER
9 Corruption and illegal activities Section 1: Political MachinesMachines hired men to “vote early and often.”Bosses took bribes, payoffs, and kickbacks.
10 William Magear "Boss" Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878) was an American politician and head of Tammany Hall, the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the history of 19th century New York City politics.He was convicted and eventually imprisoned for stealing millions of dollars from the city through political corruption. He was of Scottish-Irish descent.
11 Collapse of Tweed’s support Section 1: Political MachinesThomas Nast’s cartoons revealed Tweed’s corruption, even to people who couldn’t read very well.The New York Times published a series of articles exposing Tweed.
12 Restoring Honest Government SECTION 2Restoring Honest Government• supported reform after the assassination of President Garfield• helped pass Pendleton Civil Service ActPresident Arthur and Reforms• split the Republicans• Stalwarts voted for James Blaine, the Half-Breed candidate; reform Republicans voted for Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candidateEffect on Republicans and the Election of 1884
13 President Cleveland’s Reforms President Harrison’s Response SECTION 2Restoring Honest GovernmentPresident Cleveland’s Reforms• doubled the number of jobs requiring civil service exams • promoted reform in general• returned to political patronage• spent money on Republican pet projectsPresident Harrison’s Response
14 Desire for reform Section 2: Restoring Honest Government Americans wanted political reform and honest officials because corruption had become so widespread. This desire split the Republican Party into the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds.
15 President Arthur Section 2: Restoring Honest Government Arthur began to support reform after the assassination of President Garfield, and this led to reform Republicans voting for Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, in the election of 1884.
16 Harrison’s response to Cleveland’s reforms Section 2: Restoring Honest Governmentreturned to political patronagespent money on Republican pet projects
17 Efforts to Help Farmers SECTION 3The Populist Movement• The government limited the power of ICC.• formed cooperatives• pressured states to regulate freight and grain-storage ratesEfforts to Help FarmersFactors thatWeakenedEffortsFARMER’SORGANIZATIONS• offered low-cost insurance• lobbied for graduatedincome tax• The existence of racial segregation in southern states prevented a strong farmers’ coalition.
18 Economic hardships for farmers Section 3: The Populist Movementheavy debtshigh freight and machinery costsfalling crop prices
19 Farmer’s movements Section 3: The Populist Movement hoped to pressure states to regulate freight and grain-storage ratesformed cooperativesoffered low-cost insurancelobbied for graduated income taxweakened by government limits on the power of ICCweakened by racial segregation
20 Money backed by silver Section 3: The Populist Movement Farmers supported money backed by silver because they wanted to increase the paper money supply. As long as only gold was allowed to back paper, the money supply was restricted by how much gold the treasury had.
21 Populist Party issues Section 3: The Populist Movement graduated income taxbank regulationgovernment ownership of railroad and telegraph companiesfree coinage of silverimmigration restrictionsshorter workdayvoting reforms
22 The effects of silver Section 3: The Populist Movement Silver was a central issue in the 1896 presidential campaign.Populists supported Bryan because of his stand on silver.William McKinley won the election with the support of business leaders who opposed free silver.