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Immigration and Urbanization 1870-1920. Big Idea New immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Asia face culture shock and prejudice; as well as.

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Presentation on theme: "Immigration and Urbanization 1870-1920. Big Idea New immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Asia face culture shock and prejudice; as well as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Immigration and Urbanization 1870-1920

2 Big Idea New immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and Asia face culture shock and prejudice; as well as opportunities for a better life in the United States.

3 Ellis Island Located in New York Harbor Processing site for newly arrived immigrants from Europe Immigrants examined by a doctor and took literacy tests, 1892-1943, 16 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island into the U.S.

4 Ellis Island

5 Wider View

6 Angel Island Located in San Francisco Bay Was a processing site for newly arrived immigrants from Asia Immigrants went through much harsher conditions than Ellis Island

7 Angel Island

8 Settlement in Ethnic Enclaves Immigrants settled in the same areas together and established neighborhoods Culture shock: confusion and anxiety caused by living in an unfamiliar place Melting Pot Society: mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native language and culture

9 Culture Shock

10 Some Relief

11 The Melting Pot Theory

12 Melting Pot?


14 Immigration Restrictions Nativism: favoritism towards native-born Americans Fear of eastern and southern Europeans, Roman Catholicism, and Judaism

15 Fears Concerning Immigration Unions feared unskilled immigrant labor Nativists feared the white race was weakening Negative Stereotypes were attached to immigrants Seen as un-American Supporters of Radicalism Supporters of corrupt political machines

16 Effects of Nativism Chinese Exclusion Act: Banned immigration from China in 1882 Gentlemen’s Agreement: Limited Japanese immigration in 1907-1908



19 No Money, Mo Problems Urban Problems Late 18 th Century

20 The Settling By 1920, millions of immigrants had settled in major cities

21 Problems (Housing) Row Homes: attached single family homes that shared walls with home next to it Tenements: multifamily dwellings were overcrowded and unsanitary

22 Water Supply Millions of urban dwellers lacked access to clean water Major cities often lacked indoor plumbing Diseases such as cholera and typhoid spread

23 Sanitation Horse manure, human waste, and garbage in the streets Lacked dependable garbage collection and sewer system

24 Fire Major fires broke out in the 1870’s and 1880’s. Great Fire of Chicago in 1908

25 Crime New York had paid police by 1844, still ineffective. Confidence men took advantage of naïve immigrants Murders and robberies went unreported and unsolved

26 Social Gospel Movement The preaching of salvation through service to the poor

27 Settlement Houses Community centers established in poor slum neighborhoods Run by middle class, college educated women

28 Jane Addams Chicago’s Hull House in 1889 Promoted Education, culture, and social services Taught English, health, and other social courses Had visiting nurses visit

29 Crowded Conditions

30 Playing Next to Horses

31 The Emergence of the Political Machine Rage

32 Big Idea Political machines provided services for poor immigrants and in exchange received support that allowed them to control entire cities.

33 Political Machines An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for support

34 Political Machines Existed In…….. Baltimore New York Philadelphia Boston San Francisco

35 Role of the Political Boss Controlled thousands of jobs (police, sanitation, and fire departments) Built parks, schools, and hospitals for people in their wards Machines supported by immigrant voters (homes and jobs)

36 Election Fraud and Graft Bosses often padded voter lists with dead people, children, and even animals. Philadelphia election: 100 registered voters in a precinct. 252 Votes were returned.

37 Graft Illegal use of political influence for personal gain Example

38 Kickbacks Illegal payments Example

39 The Tweed Ring Scandal William Macy Tweed ran Tammany Hall which led NYC’s Democratic political machine Between 1869-1871, the Tweed Ring scammed the city for 200 million dollars Tweed Ring finally brought down by public outrage influenced by Thomas Nast’s political cartoons Tweed was arrested in 1871 and went to prison

40 Political Cartoon #1

41 Political Cartoon #2

42 Politics in the Gilded Age

43 Big Idea Local and national political corruption during the Gilded Age leads to calls for reform.

44 Patronage The doling out of political jobs and appointments to friends and political supporters Corruption at all levels of government

45 Republican Factions Stalwarts: Republicans who favored spoils system Half-Breeds: Republicans who opposed the spoils system (moderately) Mugwumps: Republicans who would bolt for Democrats in 1884

46 Rutherford B. Hayes elected president What was Hayes’s position on civil service reform? What did he do to promote it? Supported civil service reform Fired members of New York Customs House who belonged to Conklin’s political machine

47 James Garfield elected president In the debate over civil service reform, did Garfield seem to favor the Stalwarts or the Mugwumps? Mugwumps

48 Garfield assassinated. Chester Arthur assumes presidency. What position did Arthur take on civil service reform, and what did he do to support it? Supported civil service reform Helped support passage of Pendleton Act

49 Pendleton Act passed What did the Pendleton Act do? Authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments based on merit system

50 Grover Cleveland elected president What was Cleveland’s position on tariffs, and what did he do to promote this position? For low tariffs Ran for a second term on a low tariff platform

51 Benjamin Harrison elected president What was Harrison’s position on tariffs, and what did he do to support that stand? For high tariffs McKinley Tariff passed, highest tariff in U.S. history

52 Cleveland reelected president What happened to tariffs during Cleveland’s second presidency? They were lowered

53 William McKinley elected president What happened to tariffs during McKinley’s presidency? They were raised.

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