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Life at the turn of the 20th Century

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Presentation on theme: "Life at the turn of the 20th Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 Life at the turn of the 20th Century
Immigration Urban Life Politics Discrimination

2 Immigration Statistics
Between : about 10 million immigrants came to U.S. – these are the “old immigrants” Mainly western Europe Between :about 18 million immigrants arrive in U.S-these are the “new immigrants” Mainly from southern and eastern Europe and some from Asia

3 Immigrants 1880-1910: Where did they come from?
Ellis Island (NY): opened 1892 Came from southern and eastern Europe… Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia Angel Island (California): opened 1910 for Asian immigrants

4 Why did immigrants come to America?
Better life Jews fled Russia and eastern Europe to escape Religious persecution Southern and eastern Europe had poverty and little economic opportunity Found better life but also met hardships (tenements, low-paying, unskilled jobs)

5 Reactions to Immigration
Nativists: immigrants are a threat Blamed immigrants for increased crime, poverty, and high unemployment West Coast- prejudice directed towards Asians Americanization – some wanted immigrants to blend and helped them

6 State and Federal Laws State Federal
California restricted Chinese against holding jobs and where they could live San Francisco made Japanese students attend different schools Federal Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: banned immigration for 10 years and stopped Chinese immigrants from becoming citizens Congress passed a literacy test in opposition to Wilson

7 Where did they live? Most immigrants moved to the cities for job opportunities Created neighborhoods that were similar in religion, language and cultural beliefs Helped each other through the difficult times

8 Urban Life Space became crowded so they built upwards (skyscrapers)
Invention of Elevators made it possible to get to upper floors Concern for green space in cities Solution: Designed city parks (Central Park, etc.)

9 Lifestyles of the classes
The wealthy The middle class The working class -made money in industry and business -showed off wealth in homes (5th Ave) -corporate employees and professionals -most city residents -Lived in tenements -most women worked

10 Attempt to overcome poverty
Settlement house – volunteers helped teach English and job skills to immigrants Hull House (Chicago) founded by Jane Adams and Ellen Gates Starr Henry Street Settlement (New York) 1910 – over 400 settlement houses in U.S.

11 Political Scandals City Scandals Federal Scandals
Machine bosses won support by giving jobs – expected votes Tammany Hall (NYC) – Boss Tweed – convicted of fraud and sent to prison Federal Scandals U.S.Grant – Credit Mobilier scandal – funneled money from Union Pacific to Credit Mobilier stockholders Pendelton Civil Service Act – required promotion be made on merit not political connections

12 Farmers’ Reform Movements
Crop prices falling Order of Patrons of Husbandry (National Grange) Persuade state legislatures to regulate railroad rates Supreme Court ruled that federal government should regulate this Interstate Commerce Act 1887 – reasonable railroad rates (1st time Fed. Gov. regulated industry)

13 Silver vs. Gold Pro Gold 1873 Congress put the U.S. dollar on the gold standard – reduced the amount of money in circulation Pro Silver Farmers wanted more paper money to circulate - thought more money would help their debt

14 Why is gold vs. silver a problem?
Gold and silver do not have the same $ value. Paper money purchased with silver is technically worth less than paper money purchased with gold

15 Politics for Silver Populist Party – called for bank regulation, government ownership of RR, and free (unlimited coinage of silver) Election of 1896 – William Jennings Bryan (D) wanted free coinage of silver – lost election

16 Politics for Gold Sherman Silver Purchase Act(1892) required government to purchase silver with paper money redeemable in either gold or silver – possibly caused stock market crash and loss of jobs Election of 1896 – William McKinley ® supported gold standard – backed by business leaders – won election

17 Discrimination Wanted to keep African Americans from voting – poll tax, literacy test Jim Crow Laws – legislature passed to create and enforce segregation in public places 1st law passed in Tennessee – separate rail cars

18 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Homer Plessy (African American) tested law in Louisiana and sat in a whites-only train Arrested and case went to U.S. Supreme Court Ruled “separate but equal” facilities did not violate the 14th amendment

19 Approaches to fight racism
Booker T Washington: born into slavery said to accept segregation for the moment Acquire farming and vocational skills Tuskegee Institute W.E.B. Du Bois: should strive for full rights immediately Founded the Niagara Movement Niagara Movement founded NAACP

20 Others face discrimination
Hispanic Americans Asian Americans Native Americans -Mexican Immigrants – debt peonage: is a method of debt repayment in which an individual makes his payments to a creditor by physical labor. -Limited where they can live -outlawed marriages with whites Americanization Policy -lived on reservations -Indian Citizenship Act of 1924

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