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Section 3 Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

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Presentation on theme: "Section 3 Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 3 Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
Chapter 5 Section 3 Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

2 Life at the Turn of the 20th Century
The growth of big business was fueled by cheap labor Between , Immigrants came to the U.S. by the millions looking for work

3 Complete Worksheet: New Immigrants

4 Reaction to Immigrants
Nativists- Saw immigrants as a threat Blamed immigrants for increases in crime and poverty in American cities Said immigrants took American jobs

5 Reaction to Immigrants
On West Coast, prejudice directed toward Asians In California, Chinese restricted from holding certain jobs, living certain places Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Banned immigration from China for 10 years Barred Chinese from becoming citizens

6 Reaction to Immigrants
Many Americans wanted immigrants to blend into American society Americanization Schools & volunteer organizations taught English, US history and government Immigrants often lost cultural heritage in process

7 Theories on Immigration
Melting Pot Theory – metaphor to describe immigration that describes the blending of cultures until they are no longer distinct Salad Bowl Theory – a metaphor to describe immigration, each immigrant groups is like an ingredient in a salad, even when mixed together they remain distinct

8 Which theory of immigration do you believe most accurately describes the immigrant experience in the U.S.? What should the U.S. strive to be, a melting pot or a salad bowl?

9 Review for Quiz (5 minutes)
Warm Up: Review for Quiz (5 minutes)

10 Collect HW

11 Urban Life in America As American industrialized, & immigrants poured into the nation, cities began to grow rapidly Space became limited, so architects began to build up Skyscrapers story building in Chicago Required: steel beams for support Electric elevators

12 Urban Life in America As cities grew, people feared that urban areas would have no green space Urban planners began to incorporate park space into cities Central Park in NYC opened in 1857 - 883 acres - 2.5 miles long

13 Urban Life in America Most people in the cities lived in poverty
Tenements- crowded apartments with little sanitation or ventilation, no indoor plumbing.

14 Tenements

15 Tenements

16 Settlement House Movement
Settlement Houses located in poor urban areas volunteer middle-class "settlement workers" would live in immigrant communities, Offered immigrants English language services, job training courses Hull House in Chicago- Jane Addams Henry Street Settlement in NYC- Lillian Wald

17 Political Scandal and Reform
Problems in American cities in the late 1800’s Crime, bad housing, poor sanitation Political Corruption Many cities were controlled by a political machine, an organization of professional politicians Machine bosses won support by giving people jobs Expected votes in return

18 Political Scandal and Reform
The most notorious political machine was Tammany Hall in NYC Boss Tweed

19 Thomas Nast on Tammany Hall
Political Cartoons: Thomas Nast on Tammany Hall

20 Political Scandal and Reform
Boss Tweed used his position to make himself and his friends rich Convicted of corruption and fraud in 1871

21 Warm Up: Do you think that it is ok for government workers to use their positions for personal financial gains?

22 Read “Honest Graft” Answer Questions

23 Scandal in the Government
Administration of U.S. Grant Credit Mobilier scandal Scheme to fund railroad money to stockholders, including members of Congress and VP

24 Scandal in the Government
Attempts at Reform Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 Created Civil Service System Promotion and hiring for government jobs based on merit, not political connections Civil Service Exam

25 Farmers’ Reform Movement
Farmers organized to help themselves, group known as the National Grange Goal was to persuade state legislatures to regulate railroad rates Supreme Court ruled only Congress could regulate railroad traffic across state lines Interstate Commerce Act first law by Congress to regulate an industry

26 Silver vs. Gold Farmers Alliance wanted government to print more money
Believed farmers could charge more for farm goods if their was more money in circulation 1873 Congress put U.S. dollar on gold standard Paper money could be exchanged for an equal value of gold. Lowered the amount of money in circulation, hurt farmers

27 Silver vs. Gold Farmers also wanted money to be backed by Silver
Would create more money in circulation Formed a national political party, Populist Party Alliance of farmers, labor leaders and reformers

28 Populist Party Part Platform bank regulation
government ownership of railroads end gold standard higher taxes for rich 8 hour work day direct election of Senators -lower tariffs

29 Opposition to Populism
Businesses and Cities opposed high tariffs - Taxes on imports made them more expensive, protected American Manufactures Business leaders feared ending gold standard - Feared inflation

30 Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan (D) supported by Populist
- Wanted to end gold standard - Wanted lower tariffs William McKinley (R) - Business leaders feared lowering tariffs ending gold standard, supported McKinley McKinley, backed by contributions of wealthy businessmen, won the campaign

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