4 Reaction to Immigrants Nativists- Saw immigrants as a threatBlamed immigrants for increases in crime and poverty in American citiesSaid immigrants took American jobs
5 Reaction to Immigrants On West Coast, prejudice directed toward AsiansIn California, Chinese restricted from holding certain jobs, living certain placesChinese Exclusion Act (1882)Banned immigration from China for 10 yearsBarred Chinese from becoming citizens
6 Reaction to Immigrants Many Americans wanted immigrants to blend into American societyAmericanizationSchools & volunteer organizations taught English, US history and governmentImmigrants often lost cultural heritage in process
7 Theories on Immigration Melting Pot Theory – metaphor to describe immigration that describes the blending of cultures until they are no longer distinctSalad Bowl Theory – a metaphor to describe immigration, each immigrant groups is like an ingredient in a salad, even when mixed together they remain distinct
8 Which theory of immigration do you believe most accurately describes the immigrant experience in the U.S.?What should the U.S. strive to be, a melting pot or a salad bowl?
9 Review for Quiz (5 minutes) Warm Up:Review for Quiz (5 minutes)
11 Urban Life in AmericaAs American industrialized, & immigrants poured into the nation, cities began to grow rapidlySpace became limited, so architects began to build upSkyscrapersstory building in ChicagoRequired:steel beams for supportElectric elevators
12 Urban Life in AmericaAs cities grew, people feared that urban areas would have no green spaceUrban planners began to incorporate park space into citiesCentral Park in NYC opened in 1857- 883 acres- 2.5 miles long
13 Urban Life in America Most people in the cities lived in poverty Tenements- crowded apartments with little sanitation or ventilation, no indoor plumbing.
16 Settlement House Movement Settlement Houseslocated in poor urban areasvolunteer middle-class "settlement workers" would live in immigrant communities,Offered immigrants English language services, job training coursesHull House in Chicago- Jane AddamsHenry Street Settlement in NYC- Lillian Wald
17 Political Scandal and Reform Problems in American cities in the late 1800’sCrime, bad housing, poor sanitationPolitical CorruptionMany cities were controlled by a political machine, an organization of professional politiciansMachine bosses won support by giving people jobsExpected votes in return
18 Political Scandal and Reform The most notorious political machine was Tammany Hall in NYCBoss Tweed
19 Thomas Nast on Tammany Hall Political Cartoons:Thomas Nast on Tammany Hall
20 Political Scandal and Reform Boss Tweed used his position to make himself and his friends richConvicted of corruption and fraud in 1871
21 Warm Up:Do you think that it is ok for government workers to use their positions for personal financial gains?
23 Scandal in the Government Administration of U.S. GrantCredit Mobilier scandalScheme to fund railroad money to stockholders, including members of Congress and VP
24 Scandal in the Government Attempts at ReformPendleton Civil Service Act 1883Created Civil Service SystemPromotion and hiring for government jobs based on merit, not political connectionsCivil Service Exam
25 Farmers’ Reform Movement Farmers organized to help themselves, group known as the National GrangeGoal was to persuade state legislatures to regulate railroad ratesSupreme Court ruled only Congress could regulate railroad traffic across state linesInterstate Commerce Act first law by Congress to regulate an industry
26 Silver vs. Gold Farmers Alliance wanted government to print more money Believed farmers could charge more for farm goods if their was more money in circulation1873 Congress put U.S. dollar on gold standardPaper money could be exchanged for an equal value of gold.Lowered the amount of money in circulation, hurt farmers
27 Silver vs. Gold Farmers also wanted money to be backed by Silver Would create more money in circulationFormed a national political party, Populist PartyAlliance of farmers, labor leaders and reformers
28 Populist Party Part Platform bank regulation government ownership of railroadsend gold standardhigher taxes for rich8 hour work daydirect election of Senators-lower tariffs
29 Opposition to Populism Businesses and Cities opposed high tariffs- Taxes on imports made them more expensive, protected American ManufacturesBusiness leaders feared ending gold standard- Feared inflation
30 Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan (D) supported by Populist - Wanted to end gold standard- Wanted lower tariffsWilliam McKinley (R)- Business leaders feared lowering tariffs ending gold standard, supported McKinleyMcKinley, backed by contributions of wealthy businessmen, won the campaign