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Life at the turn of the 20th Century. Immigration.

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Presentation on theme: "Life at the turn of the 20th Century. Immigration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life at the turn of the 20th Century

2 Immigration

3 Immigration Statistics Between : about 10 million immigrants came to U.S. – these are the “old immigrants” Mainly western Europe

4 More Immigration Statistics Between :about 18 million immigrants arrive in U.S-these are the “new immigrants” Mainly from southern and eastern Europe and some from Asia

5 Immigrants : Where did they come from? Ellis Island (NY): opened 1892 Came from southern and eastern Europe… Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia Angel Island (California): opened 1910 for Asian immigrants

6 Ellis Island

7 Angel Island

8 Why did immigrants come to America? Better life Jews fled Russia and eastern Europe to escape Religious persecution Southern and eastern Europe had poverty and little economic opportunity Found better life but also met hardships (tenements, low-paying, unskilled jobs)

9 TENEMENT: Crowded Apartment

10 Reactions to Immigration Nativists: immigrants are a threat Blamed immigrants for increased crime, poverty, and high unemployment West Coast- prejudice directed towards Asians Americanization – some wanted immigrants to blend and helped them

11 State and Federal Laws State California restricted Chinese against holding jobs and where they could live San Francisco made Japanese students attend different schools Federal Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: banned immigration for 10 years and stopped Chinese immigrants from becoming citizens Congress passed a literacy test in opposition to Wilson

12 Where did they live? Most immigrants moved to the cities for job opportunities Created neighborhoods that were similar in religion, language and cultural beliefs Helped each other through the difficult times

13 Immigrants Living Together

14 URBANIZATION

15 Urban Life Space became crowded so they built upwards (skyscrapers) Invention of Elevators made it possible to get to upper floors Concern for green space in cities Solution: Designed city parks (Central Park, etc.)

16 Skyscrapers

17 Central Park

18 CLASS WARFARE?

19 Lifestyles of the classes The wealthyThe middle class The working class -made money in industry and business -showed off wealth in homes (5 th Ave) -corporate employees and professionals -most city residents -Lived in tenements -most women worked

20 Attempt to overcome poverty Settlement house – volunteers helped teach English and job skills to immigrants Hull House (Chicago) founded by Jane Adams and Ellen Gates Starr Henry Street Settlement (New York) 1910 – over 400 settlement houses in U.S.

21

22 CORRUPTION!

23 Political Scandals City Scandals Machine bosses won support by giving jobs – expected votes Tammany Hall (NYC) – Boss Tweed – convicted of fraud and sent to prison Pendelton Civil Service Act: required promotion be made on merit not political connections

24

25 REFORM MOVEMENTS

26 Farmers’ Reform Movements Crop prices falling Order of Patrons of Husbandry (National Grange) Supreme Court ruled that federal government should regulate this Interstate Commerce Act 1887: made reasonable railroad rates

27 DISCRIMINATION!

28 Discrimination Wanted to keep African Americans from voting – poll tax, literacy test Jim Crow Laws – legislature passed to create and enforce segregation in public places 1 st law passed in Tennessee – separate rail cars

29

30 Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Homer Plessy (African American) tested law in Louisiana and sat in a whites-only train Arrested and case went to U.S. Supreme Court Ruled “separate but equal” facilities did not violate the 14 th amendment

31

32 Approaches to fight racism Booker T Washington: born into slavery said to accept segregation for the moment Acquire farming and vocational skills Tuskegee Institute W.E.B. Du Bois: should strive for full rights immediately Founded the Niagara Movement Niagara Movement founded NAACP

33 BOOKER T. WASHINGTON

34 W.E.B. Du BOIS

35 Others face discrimination Hispanic Americans Asian Americans Native Americans - Mexican Immigrants – debt peonage: is a method of debt repayment in which an individual makes his payments to a creditor by physical labor. -Limited where they can live -outlawed marriages with whites Americanization Policy -lived on reservations -Indian Citizenship Act of 1924


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