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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 17 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE Section 1: Political Machines Section 2: Restoring Honest Government.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 17 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE Section 1: Political Machines Section 2: Restoring Honest Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 17 POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE Section 1: Political Machines Section 2: Restoring Honest Government Section 3: The Populist Movement

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 2 Objectives: How did political machines emerge in U.S. cities? How did political machines emerge in U.S. cities? Why were immigrants important to political machines? Why were immigrants important to political machines? How did corruption and illegal activities develop in many political machines? How did corruption and illegal activities develop in many political machines? What events led to the collapse of public support for the Tweed Ring? What events led to the collapse of public support for the Tweed Ring? Section 1: Political Machines

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 3 2. Political machines 3. Political machines controlled votes by offering jobs, political favors, and services to loyal supporters. 3. Political machines controlled votes by offering jobs, political favors, and services to loyal supporters. 1. Political Machines (1 of 4)

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT SECTION 1 Political Machines Why Immigrants Were Important to Machines represented a huge supply of supporters and voters tended to be particularly loyal to machines Ways in Which Machines Recruited and Rewarded Immigrants welcomed immigrants upon arrival found immigrants temporary housing and jobs helped immigrants become naturalized citizens helped immigrants with finances, funerals,and so on POLITICAL MACHINES AND IMMIGRANTS

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 5 2. Importance of immigrants 3. easily accessible—could be welcomed on arrival 3. had many needs for housing, jobs, and services 3. represented a huge supply of supporters and voters 3. tended to be loyal to machines Section 1: Political Machines (2 of 4)

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 6 2. Corruption and illegal activities 3. Machines hired men to “vote early and often.” 3. Bosses took bribes, payoffs, and kickbacks. Section 1: Political Machines (3 of 4)

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 7 2. Collapse of Tweed’s support 3. Thomas Nast’s cartoons revealed Tweed’s corruption, even to people who couldn’t read very well. 3. The New York Times published a series of articles exposing Tweed. Section 1: Political Machines (4 of 4)

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 8 Objectives: What scandals plagued the Grant administration? What scandals plagued the Grant administration? Why did Americans want political reform, and how did this desire affect the Republican Party? Why did Americans want political reform, and how did this desire affect the Republican Party? Why did President Arthur’s positions on civil service reform change, and how did this affect his political party? Why did President Arthur’s positions on civil service reform change, and how did this affect his political party? How did President Harrison deal with President Cleveland’s reforms? How did President Harrison deal with President Cleveland’s reforms? Section 2: Restoring Honest Government

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 9 2. Scandals in the Grant administration 3. the gold market scandal 3. the Crédit Mobilier scandal 3. the Whiskey Ring scandal 1. Restoring Honest Government (1 of 4)

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT Desire for reform 3. Americans wanted political reform and honest officials because corruption had become so officials because corruption had become so widespread, and this desire split the Republican widespread, and this desire split the Republican Party into the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds. Party into the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds. Section 2: Restoring Honest Government (2 of 4)

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT President Arthur 3. Arthur began to support reform after the assassination of President Garfield, and this led to assassination of President Garfield, and this led to reform Republicans voting for Cleveland, the reform Republicans voting for Cleveland, the Democratic candidate, in the election of Democratic candidate, in the election of Section 2: Restoring Honest Government (3 of 4)

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT Harrison’s response to Cleveland’s reforms 3. returned to political patronage 3. spent money on Republican pet projects Section 2: Restoring Honest Government (4 of 4)

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT SECTION 2 Restoring Honest Government supported reform after the assassination of President Garfield helped pass Pendleton Civil Service Act President Arthur and Reforms split the Republicans Stalwarts voted for James Blaine, the Half-Breed candidate; reform Republicans voted for Grover Cleveland, the Democratic candidate Effect on Republicans and the Election of 1884 President Cleveland’s Reforms doubled the number of jobs requiring civil service exams promoted reform in general returned to political patronage spent money on Republican pet projects President Harrison’s Response

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 14 Objectives: What factors led to economic hardships for farmers? What factors led to economic hardships for farmers? What did the farmers’ movements hope to achieve, and what weakened their efforts? What did the farmers’ movements hope to achieve, and what weakened their efforts? Why did farmers support money backed by silver? Why did farmers support money backed by silver? What issues did the Populist Party support? What issues did the Populist Party support? How did silver affect the economy and the 1896 presidential election? How did silver affect the economy and the 1896 presidential election? Section 3: The Populist Movement

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT Economic hardships for farmers 3. heavy debts 3. high freight and machinery costs 3. falling crop prices 1. The Populist Movement

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT Farmer’s movements 3. hoped to pressure states to regulate freight and grain-storage rates 3. formed cooperatives 3. offered low-cost insurance 3. lobbied for graduated income tax 3. weakened by government limits on the power of ICC 3. weakened by racial segregation Section 3: The Populist Movement

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 2. Bread Basket of the World 3. Large areas of good farmland and improved farming techniques allowed farmers in the United States to grow a surplus of food. 17

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT Money backed by silver 3. Farmers supported money backed by silver because they wanted to increase the paper money because they wanted to increase the paper money supply, and as long as only gold was allowed to supply, and as long as only gold was allowed to back paper, the supply of it was restricted by how back paper, the supply of it was restricted by how much gold the treasury had. much gold the treasury had. Section 3: The Populist Movement

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT Populist Party issues 3. graduated income tax 3. bank regulation 3. government ownership of railroad and telegraph companies 3. free coinage of silver 3. immigration restrictions 3. shorter workday 3. voting reforms Section 3: The Populist Movement

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT The effects of silver 3. Silver was a central issue in the 1896 presidential campaign. 3. Populists supported Bryan because of his stand on silver. 3. William McKinley won the election with the support of business leaders who opposed free silver. Section 3: The Populist Movement

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT SECTION 3 The Populist Movement formed cooperatives pressured states to regulate freight and grain-storage rates offered low-cost insurance lobbied for graduated income tax Efforts to Help Farmers The government limited the power of ICC. Factors that Weakened Efforts The existence of racial segregation in southern states prevented a strong farmers’ coalition. FARMER’S ORGANIZATIONS

22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT CHAPTER 17 Can you answer the following?   How were political machines able to unite immigrant groups to support their candidates?   Why might many Stalwarts have considered civil service reform a violation of the democratic heritage of the United States?   Why did William Jennings Bryan win such strong support in some parts of the country but so little in other regions? Chapter Wrap-Up


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