Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment Age of Reason. Hobbes The Leviathan Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection. Locke:"— Presentation transcript:
The Enlightenment Age of Reason
Hobbes The Leviathan Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection. Locke: natural rights to life, liberty, and property Two Treatises on Government people are sovereign and rulers are not chosen by God Montesquieu The Spirit of Laws—The best form of government includes a separation of powers. Government is a contract between rulers and the people. Voltaire believed that religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism separation of church and state Enlightenment beliefs into the Declaration of Independence The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas The Enlightenment influenced revolutions in America and France What American incorporated Enlightenment beliefs into the Declaration of Independence? ___________ What 3 American documents were influenced by Enlightenment ideas? __________________________
What was the Enlightenment? The Enlightenment was an eighteenth-century philosophical movement built on the achievements of the Scientific Revolution Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world Stimulated religious tolerance Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
What was the Enlightenment? Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible when they applied scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government. Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
Enlightenment Terms Philosophe: Enlightenment thinker. Most were writers, professors, economists, journalists, and social reformers. Social Contract: members of society agree to be governed by the general will, which represents what is best for society as a whole Deism: Deists believe the world is like a clock that God created and set according to his natural laws, and then let it run without his intervention
Enlightenment Terms Rationalism-belief that human nature could be logically explained using reason and the Scientific Method Secularism- the belief that religion should have no part in political or civic affairs or in running public institutions, especially schools Individualism- the uniqueness and distinctiveness of each individual
René Descartes 1596 – 1650 Descartes has been called the father of modern rationalism: reason is the chief source of knowledge. Discourse on Method (1637) begins by calling all knowledge into question He could rationally be sure of only one thing- his own existence: “Cogito, ergo sum” “I think therefore I am”
Where were these ideas exchanged? The Salon Salons were gatherings in the elegant homes of the wealthy where the new ideas were spread. The guests took part in conversations, often about the new philosophical ideas. Nobles, thinkers, artists, and government officials attended these salons. Some became very famous.
Madame Geoffrin Geoffrin was unable to receive a formal education. It has been suggested that the salon acted as a schoolhouse Madame Geoffrin's popularity in the mid-eighteenth century came at a decisive time as the center of social life was beginning to move away from the French court and toward the salons of Paris
Madame Geoffrin’s Salon
Thomas Hobbes 1588 –1679 Believed that humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” Believed people consent to government for self- protection Believed anarchy to be a state of nature. Supporter of absolute monarchy “Life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” Wrote Leviathan
Leviathan Written during the English Civil War The book concerns the structure of society and legitimate government. One of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.
John Locke 1632 –1704 Wrote Two Treatises on Government People consent to government for the protection of natural rights Natural rights: Life – Liberty – Property Supporter of Democracy Locke believed people are: Sovereign (independent, self-governing)
John Locke Argued that people are born with a mind that is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, and that knowledge comes to it through the five senses. This meant that the right influences could create a new kind of society by creating a new way of understanding
The Social Contract The social contract is the concept that human beings have made an agreement with their government, whereby the government and the people have distinct roles and responsibilities. The theory is based on the idea that humans abandoned a natural (free and ungoverned) condition in favor of a society that provides them with order, structure, and most importantly, protection. Agree to be governed by the general will.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712 –1778 Published The Social Contract in 1762 According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau the Social Contract is between rulers and the people
Montesquieu His idea of checks and balances would influence the U.S. Constitution Published The Spirit of the Laws 1748 Separation of power into three branches Believed the best form of government included a separation of powers and was elected by the people
Voltaire 1694 – 1778 Believed that religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism Believed in separation of church and state Wrote: Candide & Philosophical Letters Visited Catherine the Great of Russia “I do not agree with what you say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it. ”
Denis Diderot 1713 –1784 Leading philosophe who contributed articles on everything from criticizing aspects of society, the church, government, the slave trade, torture, taxes, and war Edited The Encyclopedia: Combined articles of leading Philosophes and scientists covering every subject possible.
Mary Wollstonecraft 1759 –1797 Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792 Early spokesperson for Women’s Rights Governments should extend political rights to women Ideals of equality should be extended to women Women should enjoy educational freedoms
Enlightenment Influence in America Thomas Jefferson was greatly influenced by European Enlightenment thinkers Enlightenment beliefs were incorporated into the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights
Our Most Important Documents Declaration of Independence: "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” A list of complaints against King George’s tyrannical rule The Constitution: provides the structure for the government of the United States and limits the powers of the President Bill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution
What are Natural Rights? The right to: religious worship speech press assembly property the pursuit of happiness. These rights are referred to in the American Declaration of Independence
Results of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment influenced revolutions in: America, France, Haiti and Mexico
Deists saw no point in any particular religion; they recognized only a distant God, uninvolved in the daily life of man
Culture During the Enlightenment Representative artists, philosophers, and writers Johann Sebastian Bach— Baroque Composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart— Classical Composer Eugène Delacroix— Romantic School Painter Liberty Leading the People Voltaire—Philosopher Miguel de Cervantes—Novelist Don Quixote de la Mancha First modern novel New schools of art and forms of literature Paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits). New forms of literature evolved—the novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote). What civilizations influenced artists of the Enlightenment? Classical period Name two composers of the 18th century? Bach and Mozart Who was a painter of the Enlightenment? Eugène Delacroix Who wrote Don Quixote? Cervantes What new form of literature appeared after the Enlightenment? The novel
Technology During the Enlightenment All-weather roads improved year- round transport and trade. New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution). Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.