2HobbesThe LeviathanHumans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection.Locke: natural rights to life, liberty, and propertyTwo Treatises on Governmentpeople are sovereign and rulers are not chosen by GodMontesquieuThe Spirit of Laws—The best form of government includes a separation of powers.Government is a contract between rulers and the people.Voltaire believed that religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticismseparation of church and stateEnlightenment beliefs into the Declaration of IndependenceThe Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideasThe Enlightenment influenced revolutions in America and FranceWhat American incorporated Enlightenment beliefs into the Declaration of Independence? ___________What 3 American documents were influenced by Enlightenment ideas? __________________________
3What was the Enlightenment? The Enlightenment was an eighteenth-century philosophical movement built on the achievements of the Scientific RevolutionApplied reason to the human world, not just the natural worldStimulated religious toleranceFueled democratic revolutions around the world
4What was the Enlightenment? Enlightenment thinkers believed that human progress was possible when they applied scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government.Enlightenment ideas influenced the leaders of the American Revolution and the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
5Enlightenment TermsPhilosophe: Enlightenment thinker. Most were writers, professors, economists, journalists, and social reformers.Social Contract: members of society agree to be governed by the general will, which represents what is best for society as a wholeDeism: Deists believe the world is like a clock that God created and set according to his natural laws, and then let it run without his intervention
6Enlightenment TermsRationalism-belief that human nature could be logically explained using reason and the Scientific MethodSecularism- the belief that religion should have no part in political or civic affairs or in running public institutions, especially schoolsIndividualism- the uniqueness and distinctiveness of each individual
7René Descartes 1596 – 1650Descartes has been called the father of modern rationalism: reason is the chief source of knowledge.Discourse on Method (1637) begins by calling all knowledge into questionHe could rationally be sure of only one thing- his own existence: “Cogito, ergo sum” “I think therefore I am”
8Where were these ideas exchanged? The Salon Salons were gatherings in the elegant homes of the wealthy where the new ideas were spread.The guests took part in conversations, often about the new philosophical ideas.Nobles, thinkers, artists, and government officials attended these salons. Some became very famous.
9Madame Geoffrin Geoffrin was unable to receive a formal education. It has been suggested that the salon acted as a schoolhouseMadame Geoffrin's popularity in the mid-eighteenth century came at a decisive time as the center of social life was beginning to move away from the French court and toward the salons of Paris
11Thomas Hobbes 1588 –1679Believed that humans exist in a primitive “state of nature”Believed people consent to government for self-protectionBelieved anarchy to be a state of nature.Supporter of absolute monarchy“Life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”Wrote Leviathan
12Leviathan -1651 Written during the English Civil War The book concerns the structure of society and legitimate government.One of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.
13John Locke 1632 –1704 Wrote Two Treatises on Government People consent to government for the protection of natural rightsNatural rights: Life – Liberty – PropertySupporter of DemocracyLocke believed people are:Sovereign (independent, self-governing)
14John LockeArgued that people are born with a mind that is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, and that knowledge comes to it through the five senses.This meant that the right influences could create a new kind of society by creating a new way of understanding
15The Social ContractThe social contract is the concept that human beings have made an agreement with their government, whereby the government and the people have distinct roles and responsibilities.The theory is based on the idea that humans abandoned a natural (free and ungoverned) condition in favor of a society that provides them with order, structure, and most importantly, protection.Agree to be governed by the general will.
16Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712 –1778 Published The Social Contract in 1762According to Jean-Jacques Rousseau the Social Contract is between rulers and the people
17MontesquieuHis idea of checks and balances would influence the U.S. ConstitutionPublished The Spirit of the Laws 1748Separation of power into three branchesBelieved the best form of government included a separation of powers and was elected by the people
18Voltaire 1694 – 1778Believed that religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticismBelieved in separation of church and stateWrote: Candide & Philosophical LettersVisited Catherine the Great of Russia“I do not agree with what you say, but I'll defend to the death your right to say it.”
19Denis Diderot 1713 –1784Leading philosophe who contributed articles on everything from criticizing aspects of society, the church, government, the slave trade, torture, taxes, and warEdited The Encyclopedia:Combined articles of leading Philosophes and scientists covering every subject possible.
20Mary Wollstonecraft 1759 –1797Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792Early spokesperson for Women’s RightsGovernments should extend political rights to womenIdeals of equality should be extended to womenWomen should enjoy educational freedoms
21Enlightenment Influence in America Thomas Jefferson was greatly influenced by European Enlightenment thinkers Enlightenment beliefs were incorporated into the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights
22Our Most Important Documents Declaration of Independence:"Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness”A list of complaints against King George’s tyrannical ruleThe Constitution: provides the structure for the government of the United States and limits the powers of the PresidentBill of Rights: the first ten amendments to the Constitution
23What are Natural Rights? The right to:religious worshipspeechpressassemblypropertythe pursuit of happiness.These rights are referred to in the American Declaration of Independence
24Results of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment influenced revolutions in:America, France, Haiti and Mexico
25Deists saw no point in any particular religion; they recognized only a distant God, uninvolved in the daily life of man
26Culture During the Enlightenment Representative artists, philosophers, and writers Johann Sebastian Bach— Baroque Composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart— Classical Composer Eugène Delacroix— Romantic School Painter Liberty Leading the People Voltaire—Philosopher Miguel de Cervantes—Novelist Don Quixote de la Mancha First modern novel New schools of art and forms of literature Paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits). New forms of literature evolved—the novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote). What civilizations influenced artists of the Enlightenment? Classical period Name two composers of the 18th century? Bach and Mozart Who was a painter of the Enlightenment? Eugène Delacroix Who wrote Don Quixote? Cervantes What new form of literature appeared after the Enlightenment? The novel
27Technology During the Enlightenment All-weather roads improved year- round transport and trade. New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution). Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.