Presentation on theme: "Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world.
2 Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity.These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies.These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and antiimperial tendencies of this period.
3 The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments
4 The EnlightenmentApplied reason to the human world, as well as to the rest of the natural worldStimulated religious toleranceFueled democratic revolutions around the world
5 Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection.John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
6 Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws: The best form of government includes a separation of powers. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract: Government is a contract between rulers and the people.Voltaire: Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state.
7 Thinkers (Voltaire, Rousseau) applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life.Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation.
8 Enlightenment thinkers (Locke, Montesquieu) developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contractThe ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents
9 Influence of the Enlightenment Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas
10 Revolutionary Documents The American Declaration of IndependenceThe French Declaration of the Rights of Man and CitizenBolivar’s Jamaica Letter
11 Impact of Enlightenment Ideas These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations.Led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.
12 Representative composers, artists, philosophers, and writers Johann Sebastian Bach: Baroque composerWolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Classical composerVoltaire: PhilosopherMiguel de Cervantes: NovelistEugène Delacroix: Painter (transition to the Romantic School of the nineteenth century)
13 New schools of art and forms of literature Painting depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living peopleportraitsNew forms of literature evolved, such as the novelCervantes’ Don Quixote
14 TechnologiesAll-weather roads improved year- round transport and trade.New designs in farm tools increased productivityagricultural revolutionImprovements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.
15 NationalismBeginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory.These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations.
16 Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements
17 Revolutions Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments challenge of the Marathas to the Mughal SultansAmerican colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America.French subjects rebelled against their monarchy. Required examples of rebellions
18 Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas establishment of Maroon societiesIncreasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movementsIndian Revolt of 1857Boxer RebellionSome of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianismTaiping RebellionThe Ghost DanceThe Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement
19 ResponsesResponses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policiesTanzimat ReformsSelf Strengthening Movement
20 The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
21 Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies LiberalismSocialismCommunismConservatism
22 The WomenDemands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchiesMary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of WomenOlympia de Gouges's Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female CitizenThe Resolution passed at the Seneca Falls convention in 1848