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What does it mean to be “enlightened”?
To gain knowledge and wisdom: to be freed from prejudice, ignorance, or superstition
What is the Enlightenment commonly referred to as?
The Age of Reason
What is “reason”?
To think logically
How did Enlightenment thinkers differ from scientists?
They applied reason to the “human world” not just the natural world! Natural World: Scientists applied reason to it using the scientific method The Human world includes government and law
When was the Enlightenment?
1600-1800 17th and 18th centuries
How were the Enlightenment and Renaissance similar?
Both studied the ideas and art of ancient Greece and Rome.
What new form of literature evolved during the Age of Enlightenment?
The novel The most popular novel author today is John Grisham Tom Clancy is also very popular today
Who wrote Don Quixote?
Cervantes Cervantes was from Spain
What was Don Quixote about?
It was a story about an idiotic knight --the book made fun of knights and the middle ages
What was significant about Don Quixote?
It was the first novel (fiction-- not a true story)
What Age of Enlightenment book did Thomas Hobbes write?
Leviathan A Leviathan is a huge “sea monster”
What did Hobbes argue was the best form of government in Leviathan?
Absolutism: to manage behavior The Leviathan, or sea monster, represents the all powerful government Hobbes believed exist to avoid chaos Hobbes absolute ruler
Who wrote the Two Treatises of Government? The mystery author!
A. What did Locke argue was the best form of Government? B. Why?
A. democracy B. Locke believed in democracy because he argued the people were SOVEREIGN- - the people have ultimate power
What three rights did Locke say the Government MUST protect?
Life, liberty, and property
What affects did John Locke have on the United States?
He influenced the Declaration of Independence. “among these rights are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness ”
Who wrote The Spirit of Laws? Who is this author?
Baron de Montesquieu Montesquieu was from France
What idea about the structure of government did Montesquieu express in Spirit?
“separation of powers” --3 branches of government
Why did Montesquieu advocate “separation of powers”?
In order to avoid one person gaining all the power (NO ABSOLUTISM!)
If Montesqueiu is AGAINST absolutism, then which thinker does he disagree with?
Thomas Hobbes A Leviathan: The absolute government
What affect did Montesquieu have on the United States ?
Montesquieu influenced the U.S. Constitution The Constitution sets up three branches of Government, just as Montesquieu recommended.
What was Voltaire famous for saying?
“I disapprove of what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”
What does this quote defend?
Freedom of speech and religion
What was Voltaire’s opinion on the relationship between religion and the government?
There should be “separation of church and state” Church State
Who wrote the Social Contract ?
What does Rousseau say about “The Social (or society’s) Contract?”
It is a contract between the people and their rulers
What does Rousseau say should happen if this contract is broken by the rulers?
The people should rebel! The Storming of Bastille Liberty leading the People by Delacroix
List the Five Enlightenment writers/thinkers
1. Thomas Hobbes 2. John Locke 3. Baron de Montesquieu 4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau 5. Voltaire
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Which Enlightenment thinker influenced it the most?
Thomas Jefferson John Locke
What were the effects of the Enlightenment? (Use the acronym)
The Enlightenment had some F.A.S.T. thinkers! “I know the answer, I know the answer”
Which Enlightenment effect does the “F” in F.A.S.T. stand for?
Fueled democratic revolutions around world (American, French) F. Bastille: The French Revolution Begins July 14, 1789! Signing of the Declaration of Independence: July 4, 1776
Which Enlightenment effect does the “A” in F.A.S.T. stand for?
Applied reason to the human world (government, law) A
Which Enlightenment effect does the “S” in F.A.S.T. stand for?
Stimulated religious tolerance S. “It would be reasonable if we all just got along, wouldn’t it? Billy Graham,Protestant, and Pope John Paul II
Which Enlightenment effect does the “T” in F.A.S.T. stand for?
Taught that our rights come from natural law NOT the government T. Natural rights
Name two famous Enlightenment composers of music.
Johann Sebastian Bach Wolfgang Amedeus Mozart
What famous Enlightenment painting is this?
Liberty Leading the People Lady Liberty
Who painted Liberty Leading the People?
What does it mean to be “enlightened”? To gain knowledge and wisdom: to be freed from prejudice, ignorance, or superstition.
To gain knowledge and wisdom: to be freed from prejudice, ignorance, or superstition What does it mean to be “enlightened”?
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