Presentation on theme: "Fungi Shannon, Celina & Katelyn. Types of Fungi Mushrooms Rusts Smuts Puffballs Truffles Morals Molds Yeasts Other unknown organisms."— Presentation transcript:
Fungi Shannon, Celina & Katelyn
Types of Fungi Mushrooms Rusts Smuts Puffballs Truffles Morals Molds Yeasts Other unknown organisms
Different Types of Fungi
Fungi in General Composed of heterotrophic unicellular and multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms. They have a complex cell structure. They absorb nutrients instead of ingesting them. Most species are terrestrial. There are more than different species of fungi.
Anatomy of the Shiitake Mushroom Made of filaments called hyphae. In large fungi, hyphae interlace to form a tissue called mycelium which then form the mushroom. The mycelium grows underground or within decaying wood. Initially the fungus emerges as a button which may be covered by a membrane known as the universal veil.
The Shiitake Mushroom
Anatomy of Yeast Yeast is eukaryotic so it has similar inside a plant or animal cell, but without the high percentage of non-coding DNA. They have thick cell walls made of chitin. It uses DNA template for protein synthesis and it has a larger ribosomes. Yeast also has cells made of hyphae.
Physiology of the Mushroom Mushrooms have cells with two nuclei in each. These nuclei fuse together as the mushroom grows. Mushrooms do not have chloroplast because they cannot do photosynthesis.
Physiology of Yeast Yeast has two nuclei in each cell. When two different strains of hyphae meet, they fuse together and when they divide, produce 4 new nuclei; one for each new cell.
Different Types of Yeast
Locomotion of the Mushroom Mushrooms can only move by spreading over acres of land by growing. Other than that they are completely unable to move. In order to move to another location, passing insects pick up their spores and carry them to another spot. There the spores will be “planted” in the ground and the cycle of a mushroom will begin.
Locomotion of Yeast Yeast has none of the usual organelles which other microscopic organisms use to move.
Diet and Digestion of the Mushroom Mushrooms are decomposers that feed on dead plant and animal matter. They break down matter by secreting powerful enzymes. They start growing under the ground, getting energy by the nutrients of the soil, and when the conditions are right, they sprout above ground.
Diet and Digestion of Yeast Yeast gets it’s food from glucose. They digest food by giving off carbon dioxide and alcohol.
Exertion of the Mushroom The threads of the mycelium exert digestive juices. The mycelium are fine threads in the mushroom that take in and release nutrients. They also exert wastes by diffusion.
Exertion of Yeast Yeast ferments sugars and gives off CO 2 and alcohol. When you add yeast to dough (bread) it will rise because the CO 2 from the yeast gets trapped in tiny bubbles in the dough, which in the end is what causes the dough to rise.
Circulation The circulation of the yeast and mushroom are the same. They are single celled so they don’t have a circulatory system. They are small enough to remove wastes and to obtain their own oxygen. Diffusion is what distributes substances inside the cell.
Respiration of the Mushroom Mushrooms undergo cellular respiration. After harvested, mushrooms still have a high rate of respiration. Cooling slows down respiration, so the mushroom stays fresh longer.
Respiration of Yeast Yeast go through both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. When oxygen is not present it will break down the glucose into alcohol and two ATP ( anaerobic respiration).
Life Cycle of the Mushroom Spores are released into the environment, and they land somewhere. When the conditions are good, the spores send out tiny threads of hyphae. The hyphae has to find compatible hyphae, which starts to grow into a mushroom.
Life Cycle of Yeast They reproduce both asexually and sexually. They undergo a life cycle of mitosis and growth.
Interesting Facts About the Mushroom Basidiomycota – Mushrooms Some mushrooms boast cancer fighting properties. There are over 2 million species of mushrooms. A single adult mushroom will drop as many as 16 billion spores. Early Romans referred to them as “Food of the Gods.” They have been used in Chinese Medicine for years.
Uses of Fungi
Interesting Facts About Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisae – yeast Yeast is woken up when water is mixed with it. 10 to 20 yeast cells could fit on the end of a piece of hair. Yeast was used before writing was invented. Yeast can be taken as a vitamin. Yeast reproduces so quickly it has evolved into something completely different than what we had 1 thousand years ago.
Interesting facts about Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae – Brewers Yeast Ascomycota – Yeast They are one of the most important fungi. They are the reason why bread rises and without them there would be no possible way to make alcohol. Yeasts help the circulation of our blood.