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Al-Askari The Eleventh Imam By A.S. Hashim. MD. بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace.

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Presentation on theme: "Al-Askari The Eleventh Imam By A.S. Hashim. MD. بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace."— Presentation transcript:

1 Al-Askari The Eleventh Imam By A.S. Hashim. MD

2 بـســـم الله الرحمن الرحيم In the Name of God, Lord of Mercy and Lord of Grace

3 Lineage Ahlul Bayt

4 Lineage FatherAl-Haadi MotherSowsan Al-Askari Benu Hashim Ahlul Bayt Woman of Piety

5 Early childhood Al-Askari was born in 232H In Medina Grew up in a pious environment revered for its Islamic virtue and piety Was cared for with love and tenderness. Close to his older brother Syed Muhammad Tutored by his father, Al-Haadi

6 In his Boyhood Of the scholars who asked Al-Haadi about the subsequent Imam after him, Abu Bakr Al- Fahfaki's narration stands out. He said quoting Imam Al-Haadi's writing to him, “My son Al-Askari, is the soundest in meritorious qualities and the firmest as a proof. Directed to him will be the matter of the Imamah. Whatever you used to ask me about, ask him. He has what you need.” “My son Al-Askari, is the soundest in meritorious qualities and the firmest as a proof. Directed to him will be the matter of the Imamah. Whatever you used to ask me about, ask him. He has what you need.”

7 In his Boyhood Al-Askari had an exceptional capacity to learn and a photographic memory. Al-Askari had an exceptional capacity to learn and a photographic memory. By an early age Al-Askari had: Memorized the Quran and learned its meaning The historical background of some Ayahs, and Many of the Ayah's intricacies. With the passage of time Al-Askari continued to ask increasingly complex questions for his age, and he received the appropriate answers from his father

8 At This Period in History 1. Bukhari was busy writing his Sahih 2. Muslim was studying under Bukhari tutorage 3. Ibn Hanbal was busy in his Mus’nad 4. The Mu’tazila were being liquidated 5. As'haab al-Hadith being promoted 6. Dark ages of Europe was near its end 7. Islamic Cultural activity pronounced

9 Al-Askari in his Boyhood In answer to a curious boy about knowledge, Al-Haadi told his son Al- Askari: “Son, as I had told you before, our knowledge comes not only by way of the Corpus of Knowledge but also by way of the Un-Erring Inspiration and by way of Al-Muhad'dith,” answered Al-Haadi.

10 Al-Askari in his Boyhood Al-Haadi informed his young son “When you become the Imam you will be directed by two ways”: 1.The first way is by an Unerring Inspiration. 2.The second is by way of the Al-Muhad'dith.” Then al-Haadi added, “Son, our answers to people's inquiries come from: 1.Our studies of the Corpus of Knowledge, the books I have with me and will be entrusted to you after I pass on. 1.Our studies of the Corpus of Knowledge, the books I have with me and will be entrusted to you after I pass on. 2.By way of inner inspiration, as if there is a compeller within us giving the answer. The Imam's inspiration is accurate and unerring, it is correct. 3.Al-Muhad'dith, we may hear his answer but see no one. 3.Al-Muhad'dith, we may hear his answer but see no one. When we reiterate what we had heard the answer is amazingly clear, to the point and correct.” When we reiterate what we had heard the answer is amazingly clear, to the point and correct.”

11 Al-Askari in his Boyhood Answering his son about Al-Muhad’dith, Al-Haadi said: Al-Muhad'dith gives us answers to happenings, be they future matters of Islamic importance, events, concerns, or situations. Al-Muhad'dith's information is always accurate, and when you become the Imam you will be empowered, he will not only inform you but may direct you too As an Imam, Allah inspires you with answers to many Islamic matters, or issues, no matter how intricate they are. As an Imam, Allah inspires you with answers to many Islamic matters, or issues, no matter how intricate they are. As an Imam, the Divine Light will guide you, no matter your age.

12 Corpus of Knowledge Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: 1. Quran in chorological order 2. Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) 3. Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) 4. Ah’kaam 5. Al-Jafr a.White Jafr: Prophets and early times b.Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam

13 The Golden Chain of Narration Thousands of Hadiths were narrated and quoted by Ahlul Bayt Each Imam said, "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." This is called the Golden Chain of Narration. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science.

14 Golden Chain of Narration by now The Golden Chain of Narration

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16 By the age of about 10 years Al-Haadi advised his son Al-Askari: 1.I think the rulers Benu Abbas will do their best to interrupt the line of heritage before his birth. 2.They will detain you or imprison you 3.They want to make sure you do not get married so Al-Mahdi is not born 3.They want to make sure you do not get married so Al-Mahdi is not born Benu Abbas are frightened of the advent of Al-Mahdi You will have to outsmart them, and when Al-Mahdi is born you should be careful about his whereabouts You will have to outsmart them, and when Al-Mahdi is born you should be careful about his whereabouts People should not know that you have a son, otherwise Benu Abbas may arrest, harm, or kill him.

17 The Prophet tells us Imam Al-Haadi told Al-Askari: “The Prophet (pbuh) had talked about Al-Mahdi in many Hadiths, and so did every Imam after him. “The Prophet (pbuh) had talked about Al-Mahdi in many Hadiths, and so did every Imam after him. They said repeatedly that a son would be born to you, who would be called Muhammad Al-Mahdi. Benu Abbas are petrified of his coming, since the Prophet (pbuh) had said that Al-Mahdi will fill the world with Justice and Virtue as it will have been full of injustice and evilness.

18 The network The Shi'a were all over by this time with many: Ministers called Naqeeb and Representatives called Wakeel These collected Zakat and Khums funds The representatives were in Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, and Syria forming a vast and formidable network. The representatives were in Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, and Syria forming a vast and formidable network. The funds were distributed to the poor and needy, and to the Syeds according to their status. The funds were distributed to the poor and needy, and to the Syeds according to their status.

19 By the age of about 14 years Al-Askari enquired about Al-Mutawak’kil and his father answered: Khalifa Al-Mutawak'kil is an eccentric man. He is extreme in tyranny and oppression; he had devastated the Mu'tazila, but more so our loyalists, our Shi'a. Our devotees cannot proclaim their identity, practice their belief in the open, hold Majlis, or carry out their obligations Our Shi’as’ rights are trampled upon by ill-educated and ignorant people. Our Shi’as’ rights are trampled upon by ill-educated and ignorant people. Al-Mutawak'kil had put orders to destroy the shrines of Imam Ali and Imam Al-Husain.

20 Shrines of Karbala and Najaf: 247H After 13 years of oppressive rule, Al-Mutawak'kil decrees for the 2 nd time: No visitation to Karbala and Najaf Destroy and raze Karbala and Najaf shrines Dig out the graves, and Plough the surrounding land and water it from the Euphrates. There were vehement objections to this order with petitions from Basrah, Kufa, and much of Iraq.

21 Shrines Destroyed: 247H After the first and second attempts to destroy the shrines had failed: The task to do so was given to the military and was carried out. Much blood shed took place Soon after, Al-Mutawak’kil is killed by his own son Al-Mun’tasir Al-Mun’tasir is the Khalifa, to the relief of everyone

22 Al-Mun’tasir: Year 247H As a Khalifa Al-Mun'tasir revokes all the rulings of his father Al-Mutawak’kil Al-Mun'tasir accomplishes the following in fast order: Stop persecuting the Shi'a and others. Re-institute visitation to Karbala and Najaf, Return the Aw'qaaf (Trust) to Benu Talib, Return Fadak to the progeny of Al-Hasan and Al- Husain, and Stop the campaign of harassments against the Shi'a communities.

23 By the age of about 22 years Year 254H: Year 254H: Al-Askari has been married recently but the family kept it top secret to avoid potential trouble from Benu Abbas. Al-Askari has been married recently but the family kept it top secret to avoid potential trouble from Benu Abbas. His wife was Narjis, from Anatolia up north [the Turkish area nowadays] Wife used to be Christian then converted to Islam. Wife used to be Christian then converted to Islam. Al-Mu'tazz being the Khalifa by now

24 Al-Askari is the Imam Al-Haadi designates the Imamah to Al-Askari before he dies He entrusts the Corpus of Knowledge to him, Gives parting advice and to be very patient. highest priority is not only to keep Al-Mahdi’s birth secret, but afterwards to keep him away from people's eyes. Allah will facilitate the time of his birth, the occasion for his disappearance, and the time for his advent to deliver the Mission Entrusted with him Allah will facilitate the time of his birth, the occasion for his disappearance, and the time for his advent to deliver the Mission Entrusted with him

25 At the beginning of Al-Askari’s Imamah Al-Askari faced the following situations: Erratic Khalifas ruling under turbulent circumstances The fact that his wife, Narjis, was pregnant and he: 1. had to conceal the information of the anticipated birth of Al-Mahdi from friends, and contacts 2. had to conceal the information of the anticipated birth of Al-Mahdi from all media of Samur'raa, so that no one can inform the Khalifa of his birth or existence.

26 At the beginning of Al-Askari’s Imamah II There was fear that birth of Al-Mahdi would reach the Khalifa leading to many grave consequences Problem of the anticipated internment of Al-Askari, house arrest, and even compulsory residence To carry on his duties as an Imam in counseling, and teaching people in the true ways of Muhammad (pbuh), be they loyalists or commoners.

27 Contemporary Schools of Thought Accepted and on the ascendancy: 1. The Shi'a (Imamah-Asserters), 2. Al-Hanafi 3. Al-Maaliki 4. Al-Shafi’i 5. As‘haab Al-Hadith In a decline and in disfavor: 1. Mu'tazila, 2. Khariji, 3. Jabriah, 4. Qadariyah, 5. schools of Ibn Abbas, 6. schools of Ibn Omar, 7. Murji'ah,

28 Al-Askari’s Person Appearance: Al-Askari was handsome and well built, swarthy in complexion Personality: He was a very kind person, known for his compassion and care for others Performance: He loved to perform Salats frequently especially at night, and used to say Du'aas often Generosity: Was uncommonly hospitable and a quite generous, who helped others in need. The needy and disadvantaged, and those under financial pressure were gladly assisted.

29 As described by others The Minister of Aw'qaaf, who was an enemy of Al-Askari described him in the following manner: “I do not know of anyone who is more distinguished than Al-Hasan Al-Askari. “I do not know of anyone who is more distinguished than Al-Hasan Al-Askari. None can surpass him in dignity, knowledge, piety, and forbearance, Nor can anyone match him in points of nobility, majesty, grandeur, humility, or honesty.”

30 Discourses The Students: Al-Askari was always ready to counsel, give edicts, enlighten, or quote the Hadith. The Students: Al-Askari was always ready to counsel, give edicts, enlighten, or quote the Hadith. Though severely hindered during his Imamah, he did his best to do his work. His discourses were dynamic, and he would patiently explain about many Islamic sciences be they The Sunnah, Tafseer, and Hadith, Fiqh, Ah'kaam such as Halal and Haram, or other subjects.

31 Al-Mahdi’s Birth Year 255H: Year 255H: Al-Mahdi's birth was kept top secret the great-aunt (Hakimah) assisted in the delivery and stayed for several days to help. the great-aunt (Hakimah) assisted in the delivery and stayed for several days to help. Al-Mahdi was raised under the exclusive tutelage of his father. Al-Mahdi was born during the Khilaafah of Al- Mu'tazz in 255H.

32 Harassments and detentions As Al-Haadi had predicted Imam Al-Askari was put under house arrest or detention more than once. The frenzy was in attempt to prevent birth of Al-Mahdi Benu Abbas knew about Al-Mahdi from the Prophet's 38 Hadiths. Neither Benu Abbas nor others knew that Al-Askari was already married and his wife was pregnant. Neither Benu Abbas nor others knew that Al-Askari was already married and his wife was pregnant. They thought that Al-Askari was still single, so they tried to keep him single to prevent the genesis of Al- Mahdi —for such were their fears.

33 Detentions and house arrest Al-Askari was detained in his home with limited access to friends, students, or loyalists. Al-Askari was detained in his home with limited access to friends, students, or loyalists. This happened more than once. This happened more than once. During this time Al-Mahdi was born, and only very few people were informed. During this time Al-Mahdi was born, and only very few people were informed. Even Al-Mahdi's uncle was not told. Even Al-Mahdi's uncle was not told. Very elaborate measures had to be taken by the Imam to keep the news of the existence of Al-Mahdi from being known.

34 During detentions During detentions 1.Al-Askari spent his time in Salats, prolonged Sujoods, saying Du'aas, often in voluntary fasting, 2.He was never heard complaining, or talking negatively about anyone. 3.His Goodness and Piety impressed and stunned his guards 4.The guards were impressed so much that they changed from being scoundrels to become good and proper, as his loyalists. 5.Finally, because of a favor the Khalifa needed from Al- Askari the Khalifa released him 6.Even then, Imam Al-Askari refused to be released unless his friends and loyalists were released first.

35 With Devotees Mostly Al-Askari had to communicate with his devotees by writing, because: 1.he was under house arrest or detention. 1.he was under house arrest or detention. 2.his devotees were in the millions and 3.spread all over hundreds or thousands of miles away When the circumstances were less harsh, Al- Askari received delegations from all over: be it Qum, Basrah, Kufa, Wasit, Baghdad, Yemen, Egypt, Khurasan, or other areas

36 Tafseer of the Quran Al-Askari was the first to systematize the writing of Tafseer. His works has been emulated by other scholars in that field up to the present time. His works has been emulated by other scholars in that field up to the present time. He commented on the Surah, then commented on the Ayahs of that Surah, then commented on each word of that Ayah and gave its several possible meanings. Another Tafseer dictated by Al-Askari to one of his students consisted of 1,920 pages. Unfortunately this one is not in existence any more.

37 Al-Kindi Al-Kindi was a philosopher of pure Arab blood in the Ummah. Al-Kindi was a philosopher of pure Arab blood in the Ummah. Al-Kindi was renowned for his philosophical views and had a big following of students He wrote a book calling it the contradictions in the Quran. He wrote a book calling it the contradictions in the Quran. He referred to his book often and taught some of its views to his students. He referred to his book often and taught some of its views to his students. Imam Al-Askari heard about the effort and because some of the views were in error, he was highly disturbed Al-Askari considered the work of Al-Kindi as potentially damaging to the Muslim Ummah.

38 Al-Kindi II Al-Askari asked a student to challenge Al-Kindi about Tafseer of Quranic verses which carry several meanings. Al-Askari asked a student to challenge Al-Kindi about Tafseer of Quranic verses which carry several meanings. When they did, Al-Kindi answered about one line of meaning, but when the student brought about the other meaning [as told by Imam Al- Askari] Al-Kindi was stunned. but when the student brought about the other meaning [as told by Imam Al- Askari] Al-Kindi was stunned. Alerted now, Al-Kindi asked, “What you had argued is above your expertise; tell me truly who had taught you these points?” The students said, “Al- Askari”. Al-Kindi answered back: “Yes, this lofty knowledge belongs to none but to the heritage of Ahlul Bayt.”

39 Al-Askari Dies Year 260H: The 28 year old Al-Askari was sick, he grew weak, and the weakness was progressive, and within 8 days he died. It is reported that his condition was caused by poisoning during the Khilaafah of Al-Mu'tamid. He was buried in the house in which his father was buried. He was buried in the house in which his father was buried. He left behind his son, Al-Mahdi the awaited one [to bring about] the State of Truth. He left behind his son, Al-Mahdi the awaited one [to bring about] the State of Truth.

40 The Janaaza Prayer Al-Mahdi performed a private Janaaza Prayer, attending was a number of relatives and Al- Khaassah This was later followed by the official Janaaza Prayer when Benu Hashim, most of the judges, dignitaries, and military leaders of the government attended. They learned that Al-Mahdi had preceded them in a private Janaaza Prayer then disappeared. They searched for him frantically but could never find him.

41 Contemporary Khalifas Al-Askari was contemporary to the following Khalifas of Benu Abbas: 1. Al-Waathiq (son of Al-Mu'tasim) 2. Al-Mutawak'kil (son of Al- Mu'tasim) 3. Al-Mun'tasir (son of Al- Mutawak'kil) 4. Al-Mus'taeen (son of Al-Mu'tasim) 5. Al-Mu'tazz (son of Al-Mutawak'kil) 6. Al-Muh'tadi (son of Al-Waathiq) 7. Al-Mu'tamid (son of Al- Mutawak'kil)

42 Select sayings of Al-Askari Worship is not performing plenty of Salat or Saum, but true worship is plenty of reflection about Allah's Amr [Allah's works of creation] The heart of the fool is in his mouth, while the mouth of the wise is in his heart, [meaning: A foolish person speaks without weighing what he wants to say, while a wise man thinks deeply before he says]. What an ugly quality a believer may have, that he desires [something] for which he degrades himself. The love of a pious man for another pious person is a reward for the pious person; while the love by an impious man for the pious one is distinction for the pious person. But, the spite of the pious person toward the impious ones is a disgrace on the impious ones.

43 Select sayings of Al-Askari II Wicked is the one who has two faces and two tongues: Wicked is the one who has two faces and two tongues: He praises his brother when face-to-face, but speaks ill of him behind his back. He praises his brother when face-to-face, but speaks ill of him behind his back. He envies him when his brother is endowed, and betrays him when he himself becomes afflicted. Of the people the spiteful has the least comfort. The more righteous among people is the one who abstains when being in doubt. The higher in worship is the one who keeps vigilant toward his ritual obligations. The more temperate is the one who refrains from the Haram [the unlawful]. And the more diligent in Jihad is the one who avoids sins.

44 Sample Advice “I advice you to be heedful of Allah, pious in your Deen, truthful in whatever you say, to render the trust to him who had entrusted you with, whether that person was pious or not, to prolong your Sujoods, and to be good to your neighbors, for this is what Muhammad (pbuh) came out with. Pray with your people, be present at their funerals, visit the sick, and give people their rights. أُوصيكم بتقوى الله والورع في دينكم وصدق الحديث وأداء الأمانة إلى من ائتمنكم من بار أو فاجر، وطول السجود وحسن الجوار فبهذا جاء محمد (ص) وصَلُّوا في عشائركم وعودوا مرضاكم وأدوا للناس حقوقهم

45 Visitation Greetings for Al-Askari السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ خَاتَمِ النَّبِيِّينَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّينَ‏ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ‏ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْهَادِينَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ الْأَوْصِيَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ‏ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا عِصْمَةَ الْمُتَّقِينَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا إِمَامَ الْفَائِزِينَ السلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا رُكْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا فَرَجَ الْمَلْهُوفِينَ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا وَارِثَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ الْمُنْتَجَبِينَ‏

46 Burial site before

47 Result of Terrorist attack:

48 For Details Go to: Islamicbooks.info then choose: Series of Islamic Books: Life of Ahlul Bayt Vol. III

49 Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim


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