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Development of Islamic Schools of Thought Development of Islamic Schools of Thought A.S. Hashim, MD.

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1 Development of Islamic Schools of Thought Development of Islamic Schools of Thought A.S. Hashim, MD

2 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم There are Two Branches of Islam The Shi’a and The Sunni

3 Similarities: Shi’a-Sunni 1. Faith 2. Doctrine 3. Basics of Rituals 4. Ethical Values 5. Eschatology

4 Dissimilarities: Shi’a-Sunni 1. Political: Khilaafah 2. Expression of Rituals 3. Ahlul Bayt (Family of the Prophet) 4. Evolution of Heritage: Shi’a versus Sunni 5. Source References (Tafseer, Hadith, etc.)

5 Before the Prophet's Death 1.Ghadeer Khum: After the Farewell Haj, Ali designated as the Wali (Man of authority) after the Prophet’s Death 2.Near time of the Prophet’s death and the would be Will

6 A fter the Prophet’s Death The stormy gathering at Saqifa Abu Bakr, Omar, and Abu Ubaida attending Abu Bakr supported by many of Saqifa attendees but refused by some Sahaaba At that very time Ali was preparing the body of the Prophet for Rituals of Burial and internment

7 The Khilaafah: Abu Bakr proclaims his Khilaafah General public accedes Ali does not give his pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr: Ali claims the matter (Khilaafah) belongs to him; as per the Prophet's specification. Also many Companions withhold their pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr.

8 The Shi'a: Shi'a means Devotees and Followers Select Companions (called Shi’a) were called (Al-Khaassah) the Elite and the Most Learned الخاصه(Devotees of Ali) The general public used to be referred to as العامه Al-Aammah, meaning (The Commoner) Ali did not give his pledge to Abu Bakr (endorse him) for the 1 st 6 months.

9 Ali Biography Raised by the Prophet since childhood Taught by the Prophet assiduously Became son-in-law of the Prophet Greatest defender of Islam Numerous Hadiths on behalf of Ali Designation of Ali in Ghadeer Khum

10 Ali after the Prophet Fatima and Ali after the Prophet’s Death Why protesting? Fatima’s stirring speech in Masjid Al- Nabawi, protesting to the Sahaaba Ali as the reference for Islamic consultation. Ali as the advisor to the first 3 Khalifas.

11 What are Ali’s writings? Over a period of time, Ali writes: 1. The Quran in Chronological Order, (the Order of Revelation of the Ayahs) 2. Interpretation of Quran (3 Volumes) 3. Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) 4. Ah'kaam (Rules of Islamic Law) 5. Al-Jafr (Life experiences of the various Prophets), and ethics of warfare.

12 The Shari'ah Shari'ah (Islamic Constitution) consists of: Quranic (Divine Guidance), and The Sunnah (Statements + Conduct of Muhammad) Shari'ah is the Constitution of Islam Shari'ah needs to be interpreted The interpreter of Shari'ah is called Faqeeh

13 Fiq'h (Islamic Law) Fiq'h is interpretation of Shari'ah by a person who is erudite (sophisticated) in Islamic knowledge. Heads of Islamic Schools of Thought are Faqeehs of the highest caliber. Fiq'h is the Law in Islamic Circles. Fiq'h is the spiritual law of unique importance to Muslims.

14 Islamic Law (Fiq’h): 1. Islamic Law (Fiq’h) evolves to Shi’a & Sunni, taking years to develop. 2. First Fiq'h in Islam was that of the Shi'a. a.Depending on teachings of the Family of the Prophet through 12 generations (329 years). b.Despite political manipulation and pressure, the Progeny of the Prophet delivered brilliantly.

15 Ahlul Bayt: Progeny of the Prophet: They consist of 12 Imams (Divinely designated leaders): 12 generations. All taught the sciences of Islam over 329 years. Shi'a Fiq'h evolved about years after the Death of the Prophet (pbuh). Al-Saadiq (6 th Imam) was most outstanding in formulating the Fiq'h (Islamic Law).

16 Who is Imam Al-Saadiq? Imam Al-Saadiq headed the Institute of Ahlul Bayt (Progeny of Muhammad (pbuh). He tutored 4000 Muslim scholars over 35 years. His students (scholars) wrote the 400 books (Al- Kutub Al-Arba' Mi'ah) الأصول الأربعمائه. Two heads of Sunni Schools of Thought studied at his Institute. Two others were taught by his students, after he died.

17 Institute of Ahlul Bayt: Reached its zenith during Imam Al-Saadiq’s times Active daily but more so during Ramadhan and Haj time Conducted at: 1.Al-Saadiq’s house, 2.The Prophet’s Mosque, and 3.In Mecca during Haj Developed at an opportune time favorable to freely teach Islam and spread the message

18 Material Taught in the Institute 1. Interpretation of the Quran (Tafseer) 2. Hadith (Sayings and Conduct of the Prophet) 3. Fiq’h (Islamic Law) 4. Ah’kaam (Rules and regulations) 5. Arabic literature, grammar, and other related subjects 6. Islamic Philosophy and Irfan, among other subjects

19 Why Fiq'h is Variable? Fiq'h is formulated through a process of deduction from Quran and Hadith. Each Faqeeh uses his own knowledge and methodology. Deductions come after much discussion in the Islamic circles. Head of Islamic School of Thought is called Super-Faqeeh (Imam)

20 Sunni Schools of Thought: At first there were many Schools of Thought (more than 20 schools). Through time only four schools persisted: 1.Hanafi 2.Maaliki 3.Shafi‘i 4.Hanbali

21 Period of Development Sunni Schools of Thought Hanafi: Around 150H and popularized Yrs later Maaliki: Around 180H and years beyond Shafi’i: Around 200H and years beyond Hanbali: Around 235 and years beyond

22 Numerical Perspective: (1996): SHI’A …………………………………………..…… Millions SUNNI: Hanafi …………….……………………...…………. 380 Millions Maaliki ………………………………………………. 305 Millions Shafi’i ……………………………………………… Millions Hanbali …………………………………… …….. 52 Millions

23 Islamic Sources Chosen Same Quran and Hadith but depends on what the scholar chooses and how he interprets it. 1. Shi'a depend on Narration of the Family of Prophet Muhammad and some of his Companions. 2. The Sunni depend on Narration of Companions (Sahaaba) and often students of the Shi’a Imams.

24 Chain of Narration The Twelve Imams of the Shi’a are referred to as: The Golden Chain of Narration


26 Politics and Religious Affiliations: The governments regarded the Shi'a as the Protest Party (Since the Shi’a vehemently opposed oppression of the rulers. Governments were frightened of Shi'a influence. Governments encouraged Fiq’h of non- Shi'a as a counter-weight to Shi'a Influence.

27 The Shi’a-Sunni Human Element #1 On the Positive Side: Mostly congenial and understanding Intermarriage and business interaction Tolerating each other Friendliness

28 The Shi’a-Sunni Human Element #2 On the Negative Side: For fourteen centuries emotional contention, if not friction due to accusations. Unfortunately people's emotions are big factors, depending on their educational makeup. Governments may play a roll in fomenting trouble. Education and learning are paramount to lead the way toward mutual understanding.

29 Shi’a Versus the Sunni: Similar 9O-95% Faith in Allah (swt) and Holy Quran Prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh) Teaching of Muhammad (pbuh) Acts of Worship Islamic ethics and manners

30 Shi’a Versus the Sunni: Dissimilar 5-1O% PECULIAR TO THE SHI'A 1.Insist on Fiq'h of Ahlul Bayt 2.Wasiya (Ghadeer Khum) 3.Insist on Hadith thru Ahlul Bayt 4.Shi’a Heritage 5.Walaa to Ahlul Bayt ( Imamah )

31 Shi’a Heritage 1. Ghadeer Khum 2. Ashuraa 3. Ramadhan Du’aas (Supplications) 4. Celebration of Birthdays of the Prophet and the 12 Imams 5. Visitations of the Shrines 6. Reading special Du’aas (Supplications) at different occasions.

32 Glossary #1: Abu Bakr : First Khalifa (Successor) Al-Aammah: Common people, The Commoner Du’aa: Supplication Faqeeh: A person who interprets the Islamic Law Fiq'h: Interpretation of Islamic Law Ghadeer Khum: Occasion of designating Ali's succession

33 Glossary #2: Ij'tihaad: Process of interpreting Shari'ah to contemporary times Khilaafah: Succession to the Prophet (pbuh) Prophet: Muhammad (pbuh) Saqifa: Place where Abu Bakr was chosen as Khalifa

34 Glossary #3: Shari'ah: Islamic Constitution Shi'a: One of the two branches of Islam Sunni: One of the two branches of Islam Walaa: Unquestioned devotion Wasiya: Designation to follow

35 THANK YOU May God bless you. A.S. Hashim

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