Presentation on theme: "Reformation and Renaissance. Fiscal-Military States and Religious Upheavals European population recovered following Black Death in 1348. – Population."— Presentation transcript:
Fiscal-Military States and Religious Upheavals European population recovered following Black Death in 1348. – Population grew to 120 million by 1750. – Much of Europe was divided politically into independent or autonomous units. Competition between states and units – Particularly France and Habsburg Spain. Sixteenth century began with consolidation of power. – France took over Burgundy and attempted to take over Italian cities. – Habsburg Charles V proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor, and acquired Bohemia and part of Hungary. Some states acquired power and land: – Poland, Prussia, Sweden, and Russia.
Military innovations of the seventeenth century led to larger and more uniform armies. – Flintlock muskets – Uniforms – Peacetime training Sweden introduced the line infantry, of three lines of muskets. New larger militaries required more taxpayer money. – New taxes limited by opposition of noble classes, cities, and villagers. – Tax limits led many countries to borrow money or sell offices. Netherlands was an exception. – As its urban population grew, it increased fees, and revenues from charters.
Ivan IV 1533 – 1547 Charles V 1516 – 1558 Suleiman 1529 – 1566 Henry VIII 1509 – 1547 Francis I 1515 – 1547 Humayun 1530 – 1556
Who were the Hapsburgs? Charles I (of Spain) Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Philip II, “the Handsome”Joanna, “the Mad” Ferdinand II and Isabella I (Spain) Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Mary, Duchess of Burgundy (Austria, Burgundy and Burgundian Netherlands)
Religious Discontent Laypeople and lower clergy uneasy about alliances between upper clergy and rulers. – Papacy trying to regain power after Great Schism. – Lay piety growing, printing press (from c. 1450) popularity of devotional tracts. Church Schisms – East-West Schism - 1058 – Western Schism - 1378 – 1418 – Reformation - Begins in 1517
Throughout the fifteenth century, laity of all classes was involved with faith, – Donations, – Mass – Sacraments – Study groups.
Papacy involved with politics... supported by dues and sale of indulgences. Indulgence: “... the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due, in God's justice, to sin that has been forgiven, which remission is granted by the Church...”
Johann Tetzel, a Dominican, began to sell indulgences in Germany "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs."
Martin Luther (1481 – 1546) An Augustinian monk in Wittenberg, Saxony In 1517 wrote a letter to his archbishop with 95 theses about the sale of indulgences, which he saw as contrary to scripture. – Theses translated into German and the Protestant Reformation began. Luther proposed four reforms of the church (the basis of Protestantism). – Salvation by faith alone. – Priesthood of all believers, and no separate clergy as mediators. – German princes should reform the church in their lands. – Bible translated into German and made available to all.
The Duke of Saxony supported Luther’s reforms and created a state church. Emperor Charles V opposed Luther, – but his attention was divided between Ottoman threat and rivalry with France. Peasants across Germany supported Luther, which led to the Peasants’ War and the death of 100,000 people. Some German princes, the Danish and Swedish kings, and Henry VIII of England created national Protestant churches.
Francis I of France – Supported the pope – Exiled French Protestants. John Calvin, a French lawyer, went into exile in Switzerland. – Created Protestant cities, such as Geneva. – Wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion. In contrast to Luther, Calvin believed in: – Predestination – Enforced morality – Independent congregations not run by the state.
Counter-Reformation was the church’s attempt to reform while reaffirming belief in: – Good works – Priestly mediation – Monasticism – Centralized control. Sale of indulgences were phased out along with other “corrupt” practices. Papal inquisition revived – Index of Prohibited Books published. Jesuit order, created by Ignatius Loyola, devoted itself to education and missionary work in converting Protestant and non-Christians.
French Calvinists, known as Huguenots, represented 10 percent of the French population. – Too many to imprison and execute – Organized as a separate church. Catholics and Huguenots often fought, and interrupted each other’s services. Queen mother, Catherine de’Medicis, acting as regent for her son, made Huguenot worship legal as long as it took place outside cities. – Duke of Lorraine killed 74 Huguenots in violation of this order. – Violence escalated to a civil war from 1562 to 1598. “The Wars of Religion”
Catherine arranged a marriage between her daughter and the leader of the Huguenots, King Henry III of Navarre. – On St. Bartholomew’s Day (August 24, 1572), shortly after the wedding, – Catholics killed thousands of Huguenots across France.
The War of the Three Henrys 1587 – 1589 The Catholic League: Henry, Duke of Guise – Supported by Spain – Assassinated by the King’s guards The Royalists: Henry III of France – Assassinated by a fanatic monk The Huguenots: Henry IV of Navarre – Becomes King of France
In 1589, Henry became Henry IV of France and a Catholic. – “Paris is worth a Mass.” – Henry issued the Edict of Nantes allowing religious freedom for Protestants. – In 1685 Louis XIV revoked the Edict.
Spain and Holland Many in the Netherlands converted to Calvinism. Philip II, king of Spain, became the ruler of the Netherlands in 1556. – Encouraged Jesuits and the Inquisition to persecute Calvinists. – Dutch Protestants turned war of religion into war of liberation from Spain. United Provinces of the Dutch Republic created – A mixed religious population and tolerant.
Charles V abdicated in 1555 His son, Phillip II: Spain The Netherlands Lombardy Naples – Sicily His brother, Ferdinand: The Hapsburg holdings Title of “Emperor ”
Henry VIII made England Protestant – “Church of England little changed from the Catholic Church – Not reformed enough for radical “Puritans.” Edward VI retains the Church of England Mary – Restores the Catholic Church – Marries Phillip II of Spain Elizabeth restores the Church of England
James VI of Scotland became James I of England in 1603. – Collected taxes without summoning Parliament, who became resentful. – Puritans had a small majority in the House of Commons wanted more religious reform fiscal control. English Civil War, 1642 – 1651 – Charles I (son of James) executed in 1649 – Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell became “Lord Protector.” Moderates recalled Stuarts (Charles II) in 1661 – but problems with Parliament and Catholicism. – James II deposed in 1688 in the Glorious Revolution – William of Orange and Mary Stuart, the new monarchs Subordinate to Parliament
K. Thirty Years’ War began with tensions in Bohemia between Catholic emperor Ferdinand II and Calvinists. 1. Catholic princes suppressed Bohemian Protestants and chased their leader into Northern Germany. a. Took advantage of the opportunity to capture Lutheran territories. 2. Catholics successful until Lutheran King Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden intervened to help German Lutherans. a. Gustavus also trying to create a fiscal-military state around the Baltic. b. Louis XIII of France, although Catholic, supported Gustavus to prevent Ferdinand from gaining more power. 3. French intervention kept war going until Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which allowed religious freedom in Germany.
L. Louis XIV, king of France in 1643, created an absolutist state. 1. Reduced power of nobles; required them to be in residence at Versailles. 358 2. Relied on salaried bureaucrats to collect taxes. a. Sold privileges of collecting taxes and bureaucratic jobs, in exchange for estates, titles, or hereditary offices.
M. Tsar Peter I (1682–1725), the Great, Westernized and modernized Russia. 1. Paid Western advisors and administrators in estates, which came with serfs. 2. Reorganized the military, made up of landed nobility and conscripted soldiers. a. Took a census to determine tax collection, and reclassified many former free Russians as serfs.
N. Hohenzollern dynasty of Prussia used army to centralize authority over aristocracy. 1. Becoming kings in 1701, the Hohenzollerns set out to expand Prussia’s land holdings through an aggressive military. O. English model of constitutionalism contrasts with absolute monarchies. 1. Still a fiscal-military state, but dominated by Parliament rather than monarch. 2. Central Bank of England used for tax collection and distribution of revenue. 3. Powerful navy supplemented with mercenary land troops.
Italy more aware of classical past – led to Renaissance thought called Humanism. – Italian scholars invited Byzantines to bring manuscripts of Plato and Aristotle, and other Greek and Hellenistic writings. – Technical innovations aided in the translations: new simplified Latin script paper from Islamic Spain Printing press – Flood of new books and translations inspired the study of philology. Erasmus published a Greek and Latin translation of the New Testament. Medieval documents such as the Donation of Constantine proven to be a fraudbased on language and textual research. Renaissance political theory also became sharply critical of the traditional. – Machiavelli wrote of an intuitive political ability called virtu. – Successful rulers used any means necessary to retain power.
Renaissance art also looked to the classical past for models. – Donatello and Brunelleschi inspired by Roman imperial statues and ruins. – Followed da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Renaissance style also flourished in northern Germany, in music, and theatre. – Musical innovations include development of counterpoint. – Theatrical changes include secular themes, as in commedia dell’arte. – Shakespeare typifies the new theatre: Greek and Roman models with contemporary themes and characters.
New Science... replaced centuries of Aristotelian belief in an earth- centered universe. Nicholas Copernicus – challenged traditional Aristotelian–Ptolemaic thought about the universe. – conceived of a heliocentric universe instead. Galileo used the new telescope and supported Copernican heliocentrism. – Counter-Reformation Inquisition objected apparent contradiction to the Bible. – In 1632 Galileo placed under house arrest and renounced heliocentrism.
Isaac Newton (d. 1727) made two important contributions to New Science: – calculus – a unified theory of physics and astronomy. Theory of a deterministic universe governed solely by mathematical principles.
New Science used and created technical innovations – Telescope – Microscope – Thermometer – Air pumps – Barometer. Barometer used by Torricelli and Pascal to discover the vacuum, which will contribute to the development of the steam engine. – Piston driven by steam first developed by French Huguenot Papin.
New Science led others to challenge scholastic theology and Aristotelian thought. – Rene Descartes decides that the only reliable thought was mathematical – Sensory knowledge could not be trusted. – “Cartesian rationalism” Francis Bacon invented the empirical method and inductive reasoning. – Experimentation and observance of phenomena must precede theory.