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Origins of American Government.   Early Units of Government/Offices  Most of the earliest units of government are still with us today  Sheriff, Coroner,

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government.   Early Units of Government/Offices  Most of the earliest units of government are still with us today  Sheriff, Coroner,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of American Government

2   Early Units of Government/Offices  Most of the earliest units of government are still with us today  Sheriff, Coroner, Assessor, JP, grand jury, counties, townships  Also had belief in a limited government  Individual has certain rights that gov’t cannot take away Basic Concepts of Government

3   Representative Government  Government should serve the will of the people  Gov’t of, by, and for the people Basic Concepts of Government

4   Three Important documents  These documents molded the minds of the people responsible for the formation of our government  The Magna Carta  The Petition of the Right  The English Bill of Rights Landmark English Documents

5   The Magna Carta (The Great Charter)  Signed by King John after being forced to do so in 1215  Seeking protection of heavy-handed and arbitrary acts of the king  Included fundamental rights such as:  Taking of life, liberty, or property  Unfair taxes  Excessive military campaigns  Originally only for the nobles, but over time, became standard for everyone. Landmark English Documents

6   The Petition of Right  Overtime, Magna Carta was replaced by other Monarchs (400 years)  Parliament grew stronger – Representative body that had power to make laws  1628 – King Charles I asked Parliament to raise taxes  Refused  Forced king to sign petition of Right  Limited the Kings power  Could no longer issue punishment ir imprison others without consent lawfully of his peers Landmark English Documents

7   The Petition of Right  Also insisted that king could not impose martial law – Rule by the military in time of peace  Could not force homeowners to shelter troops without consent  No taxes without parliament approval  Challenged idea of divine right – monarch must obey law of the land Landmark English Documents

8   The English Bill of Rights  1689  Included  No standing army in peacetime  Parliamentary elections be free  No laws without parliamentary consent  No money usage by crown without consent of parliament  People can petition the king without fear of prosecution  Right to a fair trial  No excessive bail or cruel/unusual punishment Landmark English Documents

9   Three different kinds of colonies  Each colony had to have a Charter issued to become a colony  Led to the development of three types of colonies  Included  Royal Colonies – Under direct rule of crown  New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia  Proprietary Colonies – Person granted a piece of land  Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware  Charter Colonies – Charters granted to colonists, self governing  Connecticut and Rhode Island The English Colonies

10   Discuss – What was England’s interest in colonization in the first place?  Turn and talk to your group  Come up with at least three reasons The Coming of Independence

11   The Stamp Act Congress  Colonies/colonist’s were taxed heavily  Passed in 1765  Taxed everything from legal documents, business agreements, to newspapers  Colonists view was that this was taxation without representation  October 1765, all but four colonies sent reps to the Stamp Act Congress in New York  Prepared a Declaration of Rights and Grievances  Parliament repealed the Stamp Act  But stage was set……. The Coming of Independence

12   First Continental Congress  Prompted by new laws/taxes – Mostly from the actions of the colonists…Boston Tea Party  Called the Intolerable Acts  Declaration of Rights  Sent to the King  Protested the unfair taxes  Took two months to create  Urged colonies to refuse trade with England The Coming of Independence

13   Second Continental Congress  May 10, 1775  Britain was not complying  Even tighter restrictions  Fighting had begun though in Lexington and Concord  Basically became our nations first government  Continental army was created – George Washington  John Hancock President of Congress  Britain looked at it as treason  Lasted five years through the Articles of Confederation The Coming of Independence

14   The Declaration of Independence  Committee was formed to prepare a document of Independence  Actually Richard Henry Lee’s idea - Resolution  Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson The Coming of Independence

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16   The Declaration of Independence  Adopted on July 4 th, 1776  Proclaimed the existence of a new nation  With these brave words, the United States of America was born  13 colonies became free and independent states The Coming of Independence

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18   Each state now had to replace their charters with a constitution  New Hampshire was the first – January, 1776  Common features  Popular sovereignty –  Limited Government –  Civil Rights and Liberties –  Separation of Powers/Checks and balances - State Constitutions

19   Working in your groups….  You will define what the meaning of each of the four common features of state constitutions from previous slide  Put all information in your notes. State Constitutions

20   Proposed by Richard Henry Lee who called for a “plan of confederation.”  Deliberated for 17 months  November 15, 1777 – Articles of Confederation approved by Second Continental Congress.  Ratified by 11 states within a year  Delaware – 1789  Maryland Articles of Confederation

21   Breaking down the Articles…  Government Structure  A unicameral congress  Delegates chosen by states (however they saw fit)  Each state had one vote in congress  No executive or judicial branch  Handled by committees in congress  Congress would choose one of its members as president (presiding officer)  All civil positions appointed by congress Articles of Confederation

22   Breaking down the Articles…  Powers of Congress  Could make war and peace  Send and receive ambassadors  Make treaties  Borrow money  Establish money system  Build a navy  Raise an army – ask states for troops  Standard weights and measures  Settle disputes among states Articles of Confederation

23   Breaking down the Articles…  State obligations  Had to obey Articles  Provide funds and troops requested by congress  Treat citizens of other states fairly and equally  Surrender fugitives from justice to one another  Submit disputes to congress for settlement  Allow open travel and trade among the states  Responsible for protecting life and property Articles of Confederation

24   Breaking down the Articles…  Weaknesses  Congress did not have power to tax  Had to borrow or ask states!!!!  Could not regulate trade between states  Lack of power to make states obey Articles  9 of 13 states had to agree  Difficult to amend articles  All 13 states had to agree Articles of Confederation

25   Need for a stronger government  Why?  Who was responsible for this demand? Articles of Confederation

26   The Framers (Delegates)  Constitutional Convention – May, Philadelphia  12/13 States represented – No Rhode Island delegates  Most were very prestigious men  Average age – 42, many in their 30’s  Real leaders  James Madison – 36  Gouverneur Morris – 35  Edmund Randolph – 34  Alexander Hamilton – 32  Benjamin Franklin – 81 – oldest  George Washington - 55 Creating the Constitution

27   Differing plans for the Constitution  The Virginia Plan  The New Jersey Plan  Compromises  The Connecticut Compromise  The Three-Fifths Compromise  The commerce and Slave Trade Compromise  In your groups, complete the chart for the different plans and compromises that were presented to the Second Continental Congress Creating the Constitution


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