3Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government in the English colonies.Explain the significance of the following English documents: the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the English Bill of Rights.Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America.
4Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Why it Matters:Our system of government has its origins in the concepts and political ideas that English colonists brought with them when they settled North America. The colonies served as a school for learning about government.
5Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Political Dictionary:Limited governmentRepresentative governmentMagna CartaPetition of RightEnglish Bill of RightsCharterBicameralProprietaryUnicameral
6Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Basic Concepts of Government (cont)Ordered GovernmentWords=sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of the peace, the grand jury, counties, townships, etc.Limited Government—restraint on actions of government.Representative Government—”government of, by, and for the people.”
8Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Landmark English DocumentsThe Magna CartaRunnymede in 1215—to restrain King JohnTrial by juryDue process of lawProtection against arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property.First intended only for the privileged classes.Established the principle that the power of the monarch is NOT “absolute.”
9Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Landmark English Documents (cont).The Petition of Right—1628, to limit the power of King Charles I when he asked Parliament for more taxes.Limited the power of the kingCould not imprison or punish without judgment of peers or law of the land.Could not impose martial law.Require housing of the king’s troops in homes.
10Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Landmark English Documents (cont).The Bill of Rights—1688Restored monarchy with William and Mary in the Glorious Revolution.Prohibited a standing army in peacetime.That parliamentary elections be free.That taxation without the approval of Parliament was prohibited.Guaranteed right to a fair trial, freedom from excessive bail, and no cruel and inhuman punishment.
12Section 1—Our Political Beginnings The English ColoniesCame about over a 125 year period—Virginia first in 1607, Georgia last in 1733.Created by “charters” which were later withdrawn.Royal Colonies (8)New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.Evolved the “bicameral” or two-house legislature.Governor + governor’s council + lower house
13Section 1—Our Political Beginnings The English ColoniesProprietary (3) A grant to a person—Lord Baltimore in Maryland, William Penn in Pennsylvania and Delaware.Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.Pennsylvania had a “unicameral” or one-house legislature.The Charter Colonies (2)—quite liberalConnecticut and Rhode Island
14Section 2—The Coming of Independence Explain how Britain’s colonial policies contributed to the growth of self-government in the colonies.Identify some of the steps that led to growing feelings of colonial unity.Compare the outcomes of the First and Second Continental Congresses.Analyze the ideas in the Declaration of Independence.Describe the drafting of the first State constitutions and summarize the constitutions’ common features.
15Section 2—The Coming of Independence Why It Matters:Changes in British colonial policies led to resentment in the colonies and eventually to the American Revolution. Ideas expressed in the early State constitutions influenced the development of the governmental system under which we live today.
16Section 2—The Coming of Independence Political Dictionary:ConfederationAlbany Plan of UnionDelegateBoycottRepealPopular Sovereignty
17Section 2—The Coming of Independence “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.”—Benjamin Franklin, July 4, 1776.Britain’s Colonial PoliciesControlled separately by Privy Council and the Board of Trade under the King—Parliament not much involved.London was 3,000 miles awayAlmost “federal”—allowed a lot of self-rule
18Section 2—The Coming of Independence Britain’s Colonial Policies (cont.)King George III in 1760More restrictiveAdditional taxesTaxation without representationTo support troops stationed in North America after French and Indian War ofKing’s ministers were poorly informed and stubborn.Choice was to submit or revolt.
19Section 2—The Coming of Independence Growing Colonial UnityEarly AttemptsNew England Confederation in 16431696—William Penn’s planThe Albany PlanOffered by Benjamin FranklinThe Stamp Act Congress1765—stamps on all legal documentsLater repealed
20Section 2—The Coming of Independence Growing Colonial Unity (cont.)The Stamp Act Congress (cont.)New laws stimulated a “boycott.”March 5, 1770, Boston MassacreCommittees of Correspondence led by Samuel Adams organized resistance (1772).December 16, 1773—Boston Tea Party
21Section 2—The Coming of Independence The First Continental CongressParliament passed more laws to “punish” the colonies in 1774Intolerable ActsMet on September 5, 1774 in PhiladelphiaFor 2 monthsIssued a Declaration of Rights-a protestAdjourned on October 26 calling for a second meeting.
22Section 2—The Coming of Independence The Second Continental CongressMay 10, 1775, in PhiladelphiaBattles of Lexington and Concord—”the Shot Heard Round the World”—April 19Representatives from all 13 colonies—John Hancock as president.Our First National GovernmentFrom July 1776-March 1, 1781
23Section 2—The Coming of Independence The Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776, adopted.“We hold these truths . . .”“. . .our lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.”