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Chapter 2 Origins of American Government. Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Origins of American Government. Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government

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3 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government in the English colonies. Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government in the English colonies. Explain the significance of the following English documents: the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the English Bill of Rights. Explain the significance of the following English documents: the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, the English Bill of Rights. Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America. Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America.

4 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Why it Matters: Why it Matters: –Our system of government has its origins in the concepts and political ideas that English colonists brought with them when they settled North America. The colonies served as a school for learning about government.

5 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Political Dictionary: Political Dictionary: –Limited government –Representative government –Magna Carta –Petition of Right –English Bill of Rights –Charter –Bicameral –Proprietary –Unicameral

6 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Basic Concepts of Government (cont) Basic Concepts of Government (cont) –Ordered Government Words=sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of the peace, the grand jury, counties, townships, etc. Words=sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of the peace, the grand jury, counties, townships, etc. –Limited Government—restraint on actions of government. –Representative Government—”government of, by, and for the people.”

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8 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Landmark English Documents Landmark English Documents –The Magna Carta Runnymede in 1215—to restrain King John Runnymede in 1215—to restrain King John –Trial by jury –Due process of law –Protection against arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property. –First intended only for the privileged classes. –Established the principle that the power of the monarch is NOT “absolute.”

9 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Landmark English Documents (cont). Landmark English Documents (cont). –The Petition of Right—1628, to limit the power of King Charles I when he asked Parliament for more taxes. Limited the power of the king Limited the power of the king Could not imprison or punish without judgment of peers or law of the land. Could not imprison or punish without judgment of peers or law of the land. Could not impose martial law. Could not impose martial law. Require housing of the king’s troops in homes. Require housing of the king’s troops in homes.

10 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings Landmark English Documents (cont). Landmark English Documents (cont). –The Bill of Rights—1688 Restored monarchy with William and Mary in the Glorious Revolution. Restored monarchy with William and Mary in the Glorious Revolution. Prohibited a standing army in peacetime. Prohibited a standing army in peacetime. That parliamentary elections be free. That parliamentary elections be free. That taxation without the approval of Parliament was prohibited. That taxation without the approval of Parliament was prohibited. Guaranteed right to a fair trial, freedom from excessive bail, and no cruel and inhuman punishment. Guaranteed right to a fair trial, freedom from excessive bail, and no cruel and inhuman punishment.

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12 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings The English Colonies The English Colonies –Came about over a 125 year period—Virginia first in 1607, Georgia last in –Created by “charters” which were later withdrawn. –Royal Colonies (8) New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. Evolved the “bicameral” or two-house legislature. Evolved the “bicameral” or two-house legislature. –Governor + governor’s council + lower house

13 Section 1—Our Political Beginnings The English Colonies The English Colonies –Proprietary (3) A grant to a person—Lord Baltimore in Maryland, William Penn in Pennsylvania and Delaware. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Pennsylvania had a “unicameral” or one-house legislature. Pennsylvania had a “unicameral” or one-house legislature. –The Charter Colonies (2)—quite liberal Connecticut and Rhode Island Connecticut and Rhode Island

14 Section 2—The Coming of Independence Explain how Britain’s colonial policies contributed to the growth of self-government in the colonies. Explain how Britain’s colonial policies contributed to the growth of self-government in the colonies. Identify some of the steps that led to growing feelings of colonial unity. Identify some of the steps that led to growing feelings of colonial unity. Compare the outcomes of the First and Second Continental Congresses. Compare the outcomes of the First and Second Continental Congresses. Analyze the ideas in the Declaration of Independence. Analyze the ideas in the Declaration of Independence. Describe the drafting of the first State constitutions and summarize the constitutions’ common features. Describe the drafting of the first State constitutions and summarize the constitutions’ common features.

15 Section 2—The Coming of Independence Why It Matters: Why It Matters: –Changes in British colonial policies led to resentment in the colonies and eventually to the American Revolution. Ideas expressed in the early State constitutions influenced the development of the governmental system under which we live today.

16 Section 2—The Coming of Independence Political Dictionary: Political Dictionary: –Confederation –Albany Plan of Union –Delegate –Boycott –Repeal –Popular Sovereignty

17 Section 2—The Coming of Independence “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.”—Benjamin Franklin, July 4, “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.”—Benjamin Franklin, July 4, Britain’s Colonial Policies Britain’s Colonial Policies –Controlled separately by Privy Council and the Board of Trade under the King— Parliament not much involved. Parliament not much involved. –London was 3,000 miles away –Almost “federal”—allowed a lot of self-rule

18 Section 2—The Coming of Independence Britain’s Colonial Policies (cont.) Britain’s Colonial Policies (cont.) –King George III in 1760 More restrictive More restrictive Additional taxes Additional taxes –Taxation without representation –To support troops stationed in North America after French and Indian War of King’s ministers were poorly informed and stubborn. King’s ministers were poorly informed and stubborn. Choice was to submit or revolt. Choice was to submit or revolt.

19 Section 2—The Coming of Independence Growing Colonial Unity Growing Colonial Unity –Early Attempts New England Confederation in 1643 New England Confederation in —William Penn’s plan 1696—William Penn’s plan –The Albany Plan Offered by Benjamin Franklin Offered by Benjamin Franklin –The Stamp Act Congress 1765—stamps on all legal documents 1765—stamps on all legal documents Later repealed Later repealed

20 Section 2—The Coming of Independence Growing Colonial Unity (cont.) Growing Colonial Unity (cont.) –The Stamp Act Congress (cont.) New laws stimulated a “boycott.” New laws stimulated a “boycott.” –March 5, 1770, Boston Massacre Committees of Correspondence led by Samuel Adams organized resistance (1772). Committees of Correspondence led by Samuel Adams organized resistance (1772). December 16, 1773—Boston Tea Party December 16, 1773—Boston Tea Party

21 Section 2—The Coming of Independence The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress –Parliament passed more laws to “punish” the colonies in 1774 Intolerable Acts Intolerable Acts –Met on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia For 2 months For 2 months Issued a Declaration of Rights-a protest Issued a Declaration of Rights-a protest Adjourned on October 26 calling for a second meeting. Adjourned on October 26 calling for a second meeting.

22 Section 2—The Coming of Independence The Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress –May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia Battles of Lexington and Concord—”the Shot Heard Round the World”—April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concord—”the Shot Heard Round the World”—April 19 –Representatives from all 13 colonies—John Hancock as president. –Our First National Government From July 1776-March 1, 1781 From July 1776-March 1, 1781

23 Section 2—The Coming of Independence The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence –July 4, 1776, adopted. “We hold these truths...” “We hold these truths...” “...our lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.” “...our lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.”


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