Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Chapter 3: The Constitution Chapter 4: Federalism."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2 Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Chapter 3: The Constitution Chapter 4: Federalism
Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 1: Our Political Beginnings Objectives: 2.1.1 Identify the three basic concepts of government that influenced government in America 2.1.2 Explain the significance of the following landmark documents: The Magna Carta, the Petition of Right and the English Bill of Rights. 2.1.3 Describe the three types of colonies that the English established in North America.
Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 1: Our Political Beginnings Vocabulary: limited government representative government Magna Carta Petition of Right English Bill of Rights charter bicameral proprietary unicameral
Section 1: Our Political Beginnings Basic Concepts of Government Ordered Government –Orderly regulation and relationships for society, a government. –The based their government on those they had known in England. Limited Government –The belief that government is not all-powerful. –The government is restricted in what it may do and each individual has certain inalienable rights. Representative Government –The belief that government should serve the will of the people
Landmark English Documents Magna Carta (1215) Weary of the kings military campaigns and heavy taxes a group of determined barons forced the signing of the document. Included the right to trial by jury and due process. Included protection from arbitrary taking of life, liberty and property. Intended to protect only the very wealthy and powerful from the absolute power of the king. Ignored for 400 years, but over time they became the rights of all English people.
The Petition of Right (1628) Charles I asked Parliament for more money. Parliament refused until the king signed the document. Limited the kings powers by; –No one could be imprisoned or punished without the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land. –The king was barred from imposing martial law during times of peace. –Citizens were no longer force to house soldiers without their consent. –No taxation with Parliamentary approval. Landmark English Documents
The English Bill of Rights (1688) After years of turmoil and revolt, Parliament offered the crown to William and Mary of Orange (Glorious Revolution). William and Mary had to agree to a bill of rights to prevent abuse of power. The document; –Prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with Parliament’s consent. –Required that all parliamentary elections be free. –Stated that only Parliament could suspend laws. –The Crown could not levy tax without approval. –Stated that all citizens have the right to petition the king. –Guaranteed the right to a fair trial and freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment. Landmark English Documents
The English Colonies The 13 colonies were established over a 128 year period. Each colony was born out of its own circumstances and had its own unique character. Each colony was established on the basis of a charter (a written grant of authority from the king).
The English Colonies Royal Colonies The king named a governor to serve as chief executive. The king appointed council served as an advisory body to the governor. The governor’s council became the upper house of the colonial legislature and highest court. The lower house of the bicameral legislature was elected by property owners. Laws passed by the legislature had to be approved by the governor and the Crown. Massachusetts New Hampshire New York New Jersey Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Georgia
The English Colonies Proprietary Colonies Organized by a proprietor, person the king had made a grant of land to. Land was settled and governed by the proprietor. Much like royal colonies, but the proprietor selected the governor. Delaware and Maryland had unicameral legislatures, while Pennsylvania was bicameral. Appeals from decisions of the proprietary colonies could be brought to the king. Pennsylvania (William Penn) Delaware (William Penn) Maryland (Lord Baltimore)
The English Colonies Charter Colonies Largely self-governing. Governors were elected each years by the white male landholders. King’s approval required (but seldom exercised). Laws made by bicameral legislature were not subject to veto by governor nor was the Crown’s approval necessary. Judges appointed by the legislature, but appeals could be taken to the Crown. Many think that if all colonies were governed this way the Revolution might never have happened. Connecticut Rhode Island