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Section 1: Our political beginnings Section 2: The coming of independence.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1: Our political beginnings Section 2: The coming of independence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1: Our political beginnings Section 2: The coming of independence

2 Our Political Beginnings

3  Ordered Government – colonists saw a need for an orderly regulation of their relationships with one another. (they needed a government)  Many offices established still exist today: sheriff, justice of the peace, & the grand jury.  Limited Government – government is restricted in what they do and every individual has certain rights that government cannot take away.  Representative Government – the idea that government should serve the will of the people. “Government of, by, and for the people”

4  Magna Carta – A.K.A. the Great Charter – included guarantees of fundamental rights such as trial by jury and due process (protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property).  Originally intended for the privileged class only.  Established the critical idea that the monarchy’s power was not absolute.

5  Petition of Rights – limited the king’s power in several ways.  Demanded that the king no longer imprison or punish any person without judgment by his peers or by the law of the land.  Insisted that the king may not impose martial law (military rule) in times of peace  Does not require homeowners to shelter the king’s troops without their consent.  Declared that no man should be required to give any gift, loan, tax, or any like charge without consent or by act of Parliament.  Said that even a king must obey the law of the land

6  English Bill of Rights – coincided with the Glorious Revolution associated with William and Mary of Orange.  Prohibited a standing army in peace time, except with the consent of Parliament.  Included guarantees such as the right to a fair trial and freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment.

7  A.K.A. the 13 schools of government  Established over a span of 125 years  1 st colony: Virginia (1 st permanent settlement: Jamestown in 1607  Last colony: Georgia (Savannah 1733)  3 different types of colonies existed: royal, proprietary, and charter.

8  New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.  1 st royal colony: Virginia  Led by royal governors who took orders from Britain and ruled with a stern hand and caused much tension and resentment.  Bicameral legislature (2 houses)

9  Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.  Land given to a person by the King.  Maryland: Lord Baltimore (1632) – haven for Catholics  Pennsylvania (1681) & Delaware (1682) – William Penn  Unicameral legislature (1 house)

10  Massachusetts Bay Colony, Connecticut, and Rhode Island  Massachusetts Bay Colony: 1 st charter colony established in  Connecticut established in 1633  Rhode Island established in 1636  Laws made by their bicameral legislatures were not subject to the governor’s veto, nor was the Crown’s approval needed.

11 The Coming of Independence

12  13 colonies were separately controlled under the king through the Privy Council and the Board of Trade in London.  Due to the vast distance however between London and the colonies the colonies became used to a large amount of self government and they began to assume broad lawmaking powers.  By the mid 1700s the relationship between Britain and the colonies became federal which meant that the central government in London was responsible for colonial defense, foreign affairs, a uniform system of money and credit, and a common market for colonial trade. This meant the colonies had a wide amount of self-rule.

13  Early attempts: 1643 – Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, & Connecticut settlements founded the League of Friendship for defense against Native Americans. This was known as a confederation.  Confederation – a joining of several groups for a common purpose.

14  1754  Benjamin Franklin  Called for an annual meeting of delegates from the 13 colonies and they would have the power to raise a military and naval force, make war and peace with the Native Americans, regulate trade with the Native Americans, and tax and collect customs duties.

15  1765  Required the use of tax stamps on all legal documents, on certain business agreements, and on newspapers.  Participants: All colonies except Georgia, New Hampshire, North Carolina, & Virginia.  Took place in New York  Prepared a protest entitled the Declaration of Rights and Grievances and sent it to the King  Marked the first time a significant number of colonies had banded together to oppose the British government  Repealed by Parliament  Cause of Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770  Cause of Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773

16  Spring of 1774  Philadelphia  Delegates from all colonies except Georgia  In response to the Intolerable Acts which were passed by Parliament in response to the problems in Boston and elsewhere.  Result: Declaration of Rights was sent to King George protesting Britain’s colonial policies.  Urged colonies to refuse all trade with England and to ignore all taxes and trade regulations until the Intolerable Acts were repealed.

17  May 10, 1775  Philadelphia  Each of the 13 colonies sent delegates  John Hancock was chosen as President of the Congress  Created a continental army and appointed George Washington as Commander-in-Chief  Occurred because the British government began to hand down even stricter punishments and regulations to the colonies as a result of the 1 st Continental Congress

18  The 2nd Continental Congress became our first national government for 5 years from July 1776 until the Articles of Confederation came about on March 1, 1781  Unicameral legislature (exercised both executive and legislative powers)  During its time it did the following: fought a war, raised an army and navy, borrowed funds, bought supplies, created a money system, and made treaties with foreign powers.

19  Worked off of the notion of “the consent of the governed”  Went against divine right and tradition.  Said people were “created equal” and were endowed with certain “unalienable rights”  Said that people should rule, not be ruled.  When adopted the United States of America was born and the 13 colonies became free and independent states.

20  1 st state: New Hampshire – January 1776 (replaced royal charter)  State constitutions = written bodies of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of their governments.  Massachusetts constitution of 1780 is the oldest of the present day constitutions, and the oldest written constitution in force today.  Common features: popular sovereignty (a government that exists with the consent of the governed), limited government, civil rights and liberties, separation of powers, and checks and balances.

21  Limited Government - State governments could exercise only those powers granted to them by the people through the constitution.  Civil Rights & Liberties - Sovereign people held certain rights that the government must respect at all times.  Separation of Powers, Checks & Balances – The powers granted to the new state governments were divided among 3 distinct branches (executive, legislative, & judicial) and each branch was given powers to check, or restrain, the other branches of government.

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