Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Origins of American Government"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 1: Our political beginningsSection 2: The coming of independence
2Our Political Beginnings Section 1Our Political Beginnings
3Basic Concepts of Government Ordered Government – colonists saw a need for an orderly regulation of their relationships with one another. (they needed a government)Many offices established still exist today: sheriff, justice of the peace, & the grand jury.Limited Government – government is restricted in what they do and every individual has certain rights that government cannot take away.Representative Government – the idea that government should serve the will of the people. “Government of, by, and for the people”
4Landmark English Documents Magna Carta – A.K.A. the Great Charter – included guarantees of fundamental rights such as trial by jury and due process (protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property).Originally intended for the privileged class only.Established the critical idea that the monarchy’s power was not absolute.
5ContinuedPetition of Rights – limited the king’s power in several ways.Demanded that the king no longer imprison or punish any person without judgment by his peers or by the law of the land.Insisted that the king may not impose martial law (military rule) in times of peaceDoes not require homeowners to shelter the king’s troops without their consent.Declared that no man should be required to give any gift, loan, tax, or any like charge without consent or by act of Parliament.Said that even a king must obey the law of the land
6ContinuedEnglish Bill of Rights – coincided with the Glorious Revolution associated with William and Mary of Orange.Prohibited a standing army in peace time, except with the consent of Parliament.Included guarantees such as the right to a fair trial and freedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment.
713 Colonies A.K.A. the 13 schools of government Established over a span of 125 years1st colony: Virginia (1st permanent settlement: Jamestown in 1607Last colony: Georgia (Savannah 1733)3 different types of colonies existed: royal, proprietary, and charter.
8Royal ColoniesNew Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.1st royal colony: VirginiaLed by royal governors who took orders from Britain and ruled with a stern hand and caused much tension and resentment.Bicameral legislature (2 houses)
9Proprietary Colonies Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Land given to a person by the King.Maryland: Lord Baltimore (1632) – haven for CatholicsPennsylvania (1681) & Delaware (1682) – William PennUnicameral legislature (1 house)
10Charter ColoniesMassachusetts Bay Colony, Connecticut, and Rhode IslandMassachusetts Bay Colony: 1st charter colony established in 1629.Connecticut established in 1633Rhode Island established in 1636Laws made by their bicameral legislatures were not subject to the governor’s veto, nor was the Crown’s approval needed.
11The Coming of Independence Section 2The Coming of Independence
12Britain’s Colonial Policies 13 colonies were separately controlled under the king through the Privy Council and the Board of Trade in London.Due to the vast distance however between London and the colonies the colonies became used to a large amount of self government and they began to assume broad lawmaking powers.By the mid 1700s the relationship between Britain and the colonies became federal which meant that the central government in London was responsible for colonial defense, foreign affairs, a uniform system of money and credit, and a common market for colonial trade. This meant the colonies had a wide amount of self-rule.
13Colonial UnityEarly attempts: – Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, & Connecticut settlements founded the League of Friendship for defense against Native Americans. This was known as a confederation.Confederation – a joining of several groups for a common purpose.
14The Albany Plan 1754 Benjamin Franklin Called for an annual meeting of delegates from the 13 colonies and they would have the power to raise a military and naval force, make war and peace with the Native Americans, regulate trade with the Native Americans, and tax and collect customs duties.
15Stamp Act Congress1765Required the use of tax stamps on all legal documents, on certain business agreements, and on newspapers.Participants: All colonies except Georgia, New Hampshire, North Carolina, & Virginia.Took place in New YorkPrepared a protest entitled the Declaration of Rights and Grievances and sent it to the KingMarked the first time a significant number of colonies had banded together to oppose the British governmentRepealed by ParliamentCause of Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770Cause of Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773
161st Continental Congress Spring of 1774PhiladelphiaDelegates from all colonies except GeorgiaIn response to the Intolerable Acts which were passed by Parliament in response to the problems in Boston and elsewhere.Result: Declaration of Rights was sent to King George protesting Britain’s colonial policies.Urged colonies to refuse all trade with England and to ignore all taxes and trade regulations until the Intolerable Acts were repealed.
172nd Continental Congress May 10, 1775PhiladelphiaEach of the 13 colonies sent delegatesJohn Hancock was chosen as President of the CongressCreated a continental army and appointed George Washington as Commander-in-ChiefOccurred because the British government began to hand down even stricter punishments and regulations to the colonies as a result of the 1st Continental Congress
181st National Government The 2nd Continental Congress became our first national government for 5 years from July 1776 until the Articles of Confederation came about on March 1, 1781Unicameral legislature (exercised both executive and legislative powers)During its time it did the following: fought a war, raised an army and navy, borrowed funds, bought supplies, created a money system, and made treaties with foreign powers.
19Declaration of Independence Worked off of the notion of “the consent of the governed”Went against divine right and tradition.Said people were “created equal” and were endowed with certain “unalienable rights”Said that people should rule, not be ruled.When adopted the United States of America was born and the 13 colonies became free and independent states.
201st State Constitutions 1st state: New Hampshire – January 1776 (replaced royal charter)State constitutions = written bodies of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of their governments.Massachusetts constitution of 1780 is the oldest of the present day constitutions, and the oldest written constitution in force today.Common features: popular sovereignty (a government that exists with the consent of the governed), limited government, civil rights and liberties, separation of powers, and checks and balances.
21Common FeaturesLimited Government - State governments could exercise only those powers granted to them by the people through the constitution.Civil Rights & Liberties - Sovereign people held certain rights that the government must respect at all times.Separation of Powers, Checks & Balances – The powers granted to the new state governments were divided among 3 distinct branches (executive, legislative, & judicial) and each branch was given powers to check, or restrain, the other branches of government.