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Objective 11; Examine the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, comparing it to the Social.

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Presentation on theme: "Objective 11; Examine the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, comparing it to the Social."— Presentation transcript:

1 Objective 11; Examine the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, comparing it to the Social Contract theory, and evaluating it as a persuasive argument.

2  Congress appointed 5 people to write a document declaring independence.  Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson.  Jefferson, the youngest, did most of the writing.  He was greatly influenced by John Locke’s philosophy.

3  The Social Contract Theory argues that the state arose out of the voluntary acts of free people.  It says the state exists only to serve the will of the people and they have the right to give or withhold political power as they choose.

4  Major concepts of Social Contract;  Popular Sovereignty  Limited Government  Individual Rights  Equality of men  Locke argued that the reason men put themselves under a government is the preservation of life, liberty and property.

5  The Declaration of Independence justified the Revolution through the Social Contract Theory.  Jefferson argued that King George III and his ministers violated social contract.  Jefferson included many of the ideas of Social Contract in the Declaration.  It was a justification of the Revolution.

6  What items did Social Contract and the Declaration have in common?

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10  Roger Sherman

11  Robert Livingston

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16  Objective 12;  Recognize the achievements and strengths as well as the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the problems resulting from it, including Shay’s Rebellion.

17  Nov. 15, 1777, after 17 months of deliberation, the Articles of Confederation were approved.  First frame of government for the U.S.  Sovereignty was given to the States in  Became effective after Maryland  ratified them on March 1, 1781.

18  Government Structure.  Congress was the sole body and was unicameral.  Delegates elected yearly  Each state had one vote  No executive or judicial branches  One member was chosen to be the presiding officer for one year.  Civil officers appointed by Congress.

19  Powers of Congress;  Make war and peace  Send and receive ambassadors  Make treaties  Borrow money  Set up monetary system  Establish post office  Raise army and build navy  (Had to ask States for troops)

20  Set uniform standards  Settle disputes between states  State Obligations;  Pledged to obey Articles and acts of Congress  Would provide funds and troops requested by Congress  Areed to cooperate with other States in legal matters

21  States retained powers not explicitly given to Congress  States were responsible for protecting their people  Accountable for promoting “General Welfare” of the people

22  Weaknesses of the Central Government under the Articles of Confederation;  Did not have power to tax  Could not regulate trade  Must have agreement of 9 States to make new laws  All 13 States must agree to amend Articles.

23  Critical Period, 1780’s;  Oct., 19, 1781 American Revolution ended  1783 – Treaty of Paris signed  U.S. faced many economic and political problems due to the weaknesses of the Articles.  States argued among themselves and Central Government could do nothing about it.

24  States often refused to monetarily support Central gov’t.  Many made agreements with foreign nations w/out Congressional approval.  Taxed each other’s products.  Printed their own money  Economic chaos resulted and led to violence.

25  Shay’s Rebellion 1786;  Many farmers began to lose their land because of inability to pay taxes.  Shays, former officer in Continental Army, led an armed rebellion forcing judges to close courts. Also led an attack on a federal arsenal.

26  The rebellion was eventually put down by militia but Mass. Legislature passed laws easing burden of taxes on debtors.  Need for a stronger government;  Central gov’t could not deal w/ nation’s problems.  Demand grew for a stronger national gov’t.

27  Those who favored a stronger national gov’t were property owners, businessmen and creditors.  Achievements under the Articles;  Size of America doubled.  (Slide 35)

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