Presentation on theme: "Objective 11; Examine the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, comparing it to the Social."— Presentation transcript:
Objective 11; Examine the natural rights philosophy and the nature of government expressed in the Declaration of Independence, comparing it to the Social Contract theory, and evaluating it as a persuasive argument.
Congress appointed 5 people to write a document declaring independence. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson, the youngest, did most of the writing. He was greatly influenced by John Locke’s philosophy.
The Social Contract Theory argues that the state arose out of the voluntary acts of free people. It says the state exists only to serve the will of the people and they have the right to give or withhold political power as they choose.
Major concepts of Social Contract; Popular Sovereignty Limited Government Individual Rights Equality of men Locke argued that the reason men put themselves under a government is the preservation of life, liberty and property.
The Declaration of Independence justified the Revolution through the Social Contract Theory. Jefferson argued that King George III and his ministers violated social contract. Jefferson included many of the ideas of Social Contract in the Declaration. It was a justification of the Revolution.
What items did Social Contract and the Declaration have in common?
Objective 12; Recognize the achievements and strengths as well as the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the problems resulting from it, including Shay’s Rebellion.
Nov. 15, 1777, after 17 months of deliberation, the Articles of Confederation were approved. First frame of government for the U.S. Sovereignty was given to the States in 1781. Became effective after Maryland ratified them on March 1, 1781.
Government Structure. Congress was the sole body and was unicameral. Delegates elected yearly Each state had one vote No executive or judicial branches One member was chosen to be the presiding officer for one year. Civil officers appointed by Congress.
Powers of Congress; Make war and peace Send and receive ambassadors Make treaties Borrow money Set up monetary system Establish post office Raise army and build navy (Had to ask States for troops)
Set uniform standards Settle disputes between states State Obligations; Pledged to obey Articles and acts of Congress Would provide funds and troops requested by Congress Areed to cooperate with other States in legal matters
States retained powers not explicitly given to Congress States were responsible for protecting their people Accountable for promoting “General Welfare” of the people
Weaknesses of the Central Government under the Articles of Confederation; Did not have power to tax Could not regulate trade Must have agreement of 9 States to make new laws All 13 States must agree to amend Articles.
Critical Period, 1780’s; Oct., 19, 1781 American Revolution ended 1783 – Treaty of Paris signed U.S. faced many economic and political problems due to the weaknesses of the Articles. States argued among themselves and Central Government could do nothing about it.
States often refused to monetarily support Central gov’t. Many made agreements with foreign nations w/out Congressional approval. Taxed each other’s products. Printed their own money Economic chaos resulted and led to violence.
Shay’s Rebellion 1786; Many farmers began to lose their land because of inability to pay taxes. Shays, former officer in Continental Army, led an armed rebellion forcing judges to close courts. Also led an attack on a federal arsenal.
The rebellion was eventually put down by militia but Mass. Legislature passed laws easing burden of taxes on debtors. Need for a stronger government; Central gov’t could not deal w/ nation’s problems. Demand grew for a stronger national gov’t.
Those who favored a stronger national gov’t were property owners, businessmen and creditors. Achievements under the Articles; Size of America doubled. (Slide 35)