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Chapter 2 Origins of American Government. Section 1  Our Political Beginnings.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Origins of American Government. Section 1  Our Political Beginnings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Origins of American Government

2 Section 1  Our Political Beginnings

3 Basic Concepts of Government  English brought idea of political system to America  Ordered Government  Limited Government  Restrict Government  Representative Government  For the People, By the People

4 Landmark English Documents  Magna Carta “Great Charter”  In Britain in 1215, Nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta  Include rights:  Trial by Jury  Due Process of Law  Protection from arbitrary arrest

5 Landmark English Documents (Con’t)  The Petition of Right  Reinforced Due Process  Required the King to obey the law of the land  English Bill of Rights  Backbone for U.S. Constitution  Contains many of the rights included in the U.S. Bill of Rights

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7 English Colonies  Each established separately as charters  Written grant of authority from the king  Three kinds of colonies developed in U.S.  Royal  Proprietary  Charter  Page 31 Map

8 English Colonies  Royal Colonies  Became a bicameral legislature  Bicameral means “Two Houses”  Proprietary Colonies  Governed by Proprietor  Charter Colonies  Mainly Self-Governing

9 Section 2  The Coming of Independence

10 Britain’s Colonial Policies  In theory colonies were controlled by Britain, but colonies were relatively self-governing  Changed with King George III  Began heavy trading restriction and taxation  Colonies were unhappy with the taxation  Colonist began saying “No Taxation without Representation”  Colonist still considered themselves British

11 Growing Colonial Unity  New England Confederation  Colonist in Northeastern America agreement against Indians  But dissolved in late 1600’s  The Albany Plan  Benjamin Franklin Wanted to create a congress with delegates from each colony  Power to raise military and naval Forces, make war and peace, regulate trade and tax  Declined by Colonist and King

12 Growing Colonial Unity (Con’t)  Stamp Act Congress  A reaction by the colonies to taxing on them by the crown  Created the Declaration of Rights and Grievances  Stamp Act repealed by the British Legislature, however other taxes were brought on  Protest by Colonist continue  Included the famed “Boston Tea Party”

13 First Continental Congress  More laws passed by Britain’s Parliament, which prompted a meeting of delegates from each colony in the spring of 1774  Called for a boycott on British Goods until taxes and trade regulations were repealed  Called for a second meeting later  Approved by all the colonies Legislature

14 Second Continental Congress  Began on May 10, 1775  Revolution had already begun… “Shot heard round the world”  All 13 colonies sent a representative  Created a continental army and put George Washington as General  First U.S. Government  However no written constitution held

15 Second Continental Congress (Con’t)  Declaration of Independence  Created and signed  Officially separated colonies from Britain  State Constitutions  Continued to maintain there own constitutions  Common Thread among Constitutions  Popular Sovereignty  Government exists on the consent of the governed… AKA people vote the government into existence

16 Section 3  The Critical Period

17 Articles of Confederation  Governmental Structures  Unicameral Congress  Each state had one vote  No executive or judicial branches established  Power of Congress  Make war and peace  Settle disputes among states  Etc.

18 Articles of Confederation (Con’t)  State Obligations  Obey Articles of Confederation  Pay taxes to Congress based on population  Weakness  States bickered between one another  Taxed each others imports  Weak Government and Power  Created separate form of money

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20 Section 4  Creating the Constitution

21 Framers  The group of men who got together to frame the constitution in the summer of 1787  Each delegate had either:  Served in the American Revolution  Been state governors  Signed the Declaration of Independence  Attended College (Very Rare during that time)

22 Organization and Procedure  Conventions purpose was to fix the Articles of Confederation  James Madison was selected as the convention’s floor leader  Later Madison was titled “The Father of the Constitution”

23 A Momentous Decision  “Resolved… that a national Government ought to be established consisting of a supreme Legislative, Executive and Judiciary.” Edmund Randolph  Changed the purpose of the Convention from fixing the Articles of Confederation, to replacing it

24 Virginia Plan  Called for 3 different branches of Government, with a bicameral Congress  House of Representatives selected by popular vote and Senate by amount of money paid  Same powers to the Central Government as given in the Articles of Confederation, but with more support  Select a “National Executive” and “National Judiciary”

25 New Jersey Plan  Wanted a unicameral Congress with each state equally represented  Add Congress limited power to tax and regulate trade between states  Called for more than one “Federal Executive”  “Federal Judiciary” appointed by Executive

26 Compromise  Most of the fighting during the convention rotated around the power of the big states and representation of the small states  Connecticut Compromise “Great Compromise”  Congress should be composed of two houses  House of Representation by population (Virginia Plan)  Senate equal by State (New Jersey Plan)

27 Compromise (Con’t)  Three-Fifths Compromise  Fight over counting slaves for House of Representation  Southerners wanted full count of slaves and Northerners did not  Compromise decided that Slaves counted as 3/5 of a White, but Slaves must also be counted in tax proportions

28 Compromise (Con’t)  The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise  Congress could not tax exports from states and would not regulate slave trade for 20 years

29 Sources of the Constitution  Historical Governments  Greece, Rome, Great Britain, and Europe  Enlightenment Writers  Blackstone, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Locke  U.S. writings  Second Continental Congress, Articles of Confederation, and State Constitutions

30 Section 5  Ratifying the Constitution

31 The Fight for Ratification  Two groups emerged after the Constitution was printed and published for the public  Federalist  Favored ratification of the Constitution  Stressed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation  Anti-Federalist  Opposed ratification of the Constitution  Did not like the increased central government powers  The Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights

32 The Fight for Ratification (Con’t)  Virginia Ratification  Swing vote in passing the Constitution was George Washington and Thomas Jefferson  New York, the last key state to ratify the Constitution  The Federalist was written to help encourage the population about the Constitution  Written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay  Published as letters in newspapers

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34 Inaugurating the Government  Finally all 13 colonies ratified the Constitution by early 1789  New York City was set as the temporary Capital  Capital then moved to Philadelphia in 1790  Finally the Capital was moved to “Federal City” (Washington D.C.) in 1800  Completely designed by a French Architect


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