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Origins of American Government

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Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Origins of American Government
Chapter 2 Origins of American Government

2 Section 1 Our Political Beginnings

3 Basic Concepts of Government
English brought idea of political system to America Ordered Government Limited Government Restrict Government Representative Government For the People, By the People

4 Landmark English Documents
Magna Carta “Great Charter” In Britain in 1215, Nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta Include rights: Trial by Jury Due Process of Law Protection from arbitrary arrest

5 Landmark English Documents (Con’t)
The Petition of Right Reinforced Due Process Required the King to obey the law of the land English Bill of Rights Backbone for U.S. Constitution Contains many of the rights included in the U.S. Bill of Rights


7 English Colonies Each established separately as charters
Written grant of authority from the king Three kinds of colonies developed in U.S. Royal Proprietary Charter Page 31 Map

8 English Colonies Royal Colonies Proprietary Colonies Charter Colonies
Became a bicameral legislature Bicameral means “Two Houses” Proprietary Colonies Governed by Proprietor Charter Colonies Mainly Self-Governing

9 Section 2 The Coming of Independence

10 Britain’s Colonial Policies
In theory colonies were controlled by Britain, but colonies were relatively self-governing Changed with King George III Began heavy trading restriction and taxation Colonies were unhappy with the taxation Colonist began saying “No Taxation without Representation” Colonist still considered themselves British

11 Growing Colonial Unity
New England Confederation Colonist in Northeastern America agreement against Indians But dissolved in late 1600’s The Albany Plan Benjamin Franklin Wanted to create a congress with delegates from each colony Power to raise military and naval Forces, make war and peace, regulate trade and tax Declined by Colonist and King

12 Growing Colonial Unity (Con’t)
Stamp Act Congress A reaction by the colonies to taxing on them by the crown Created the Declaration of Rights and Grievances Stamp Act repealed by the British Legislature, however other taxes were brought on Protest by Colonist continue Included the famed “Boston Tea Party”

13 First Continental Congress
More laws passed by Britain’s Parliament, which prompted a meeting of delegates from each colony in the spring of 1774 Called for a boycott on British Goods until taxes and trade regulations were repealed Called for a second meeting later Approved by all the colonies Legislature

14 Second Continental Congress
Began on May 10, 1775 Revolution had already begun… “Shot heard round the world” All 13 colonies sent a representative Created a continental army and put George Washington as General First U.S. Government However no written constitution held

15 Second Continental Congress (Con’t)
Declaration of Independence Created and signed Officially separated colonies from Britain State Constitutions Continued to maintain there own constitutions Common Thread among Constitutions Popular Sovereignty Government exists on the consent of the governed… AKA people vote the government into existence

16 Section 3 The Critical Period

17 Articles of Confederation
Governmental Structures Unicameral Congress Each state had one vote No executive or judicial branches established Power of Congress Make war and peace Settle disputes among states Etc.

18 Articles of Confederation (Con’t)
State Obligations Obey Articles of Confederation Pay taxes to Congress based on population Weakness States bickered between one another Taxed each others imports Weak Government and Power Created separate form of money


20 Section 4 Creating the Constitution

21 Framers The group of men who got together to frame the constitution in the summer of 1787 Each delegate had either: Served in the American Revolution Been state governors Signed the Declaration of Independence Attended College (Very Rare during that time)

22 Organization and Procedure
Conventions purpose was to fix the Articles of Confederation James Madison was selected as the convention’s floor leader Later Madison was titled “The Father of the Constitution”

23 A Momentous Decision “Resolved… that a national Government ought to be established consisting of a supreme Legislative, Executive and Judiciary.” Edmund Randolph Changed the purpose of the Convention from fixing the Articles of Confederation, to replacing it

24 Virginia Plan Called for 3 different branches of Government, with a bicameral Congress House of Representatives selected by popular vote and Senate by amount of money paid Same powers to the Central Government as given in the Articles of Confederation, but with more support Select a “National Executive” and “National Judiciary”

25 New Jersey Plan Wanted a unicameral Congress with each state equally represented Add Congress limited power to tax and regulate trade between states Called for more than one “Federal Executive” “Federal Judiciary” appointed by Executive

26 Compromise Most of the fighting during the convention rotated around the power of the big states and representation of the small states Connecticut Compromise “Great Compromise” Congress should be composed of two houses House of Representation by population (Virginia Plan) Senate equal by State (New Jersey Plan)

27 Compromise (Con’t) Three-Fifths Compromise
Fight over counting slaves for House of Representation Southerners wanted full count of slaves and Northerners did not Compromise decided that Slaves counted as 3/5 of a White, but Slaves must also be counted in tax proportions

28 Compromise (Con’t) The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
Congress could not tax exports from states and would not regulate slave trade for 20 years

29 Sources of the Constitution
Historical Governments Greece, Rome, Great Britain, and Europe Enlightenment Writers Blackstone, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Locke U.S. writings Second Continental Congress, Articles of Confederation, and State Constitutions

30 Section 5 Ratifying the Constitution

31 The Fight for Ratification
Two groups emerged after the Constitution was printed and published for the public Federalist Favored ratification of the Constitution Stressed the weakness of the Articles of Confederation Anti-Federalist Opposed ratification of the Constitution Did not like the increased central government powers The Constitution lacked a Bill of Rights

32 The Fight for Ratification (Con’t)
Virginia Ratification Swing vote in passing the Constitution was George Washington and Thomas Jefferson New York, the last key state to ratify the Constitution The Federalist was written to help encourage the population about the Constitution Written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay Published as letters in newspapers


34 Inaugurating the Government
Finally all 13 colonies ratified the Constitution by early 1789 New York City was set as the temporary Capital Capital then moved to Philadelphia in 1790 Finally the Capital was moved to “Federal City” (Washington D.C.) in 1800 Completely designed by a French Architect

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