Honesty Speaking Ability IntelligenceLeadership Skills AppearanceToughness ExperienceAge EducationHealth Religious Affiliation Decisiveness GenderFamily Structure Ethnic Background Position on Issues Financial Resources Compassion
1. How many individuals have served as president? 2. How many Presidents have been assassinated? 3. How many incidents have there been where both father and son have served as President? Name them. 4. Who served the shortest Presidential term? Longest? 5. How many Presidents have been divorced?
President Political Party Significant Events WashingtonFederalist-Judiciary Act of 1789 -Cabinet -Hamilton’s economic plan -Washington, D.C. -Whiskey Rebellion
Jay’s Treaty- w/ British- unpopular in U.S. XYZ Affair- sent representatives to negotiate with France because of trade issues- they demanded a bribe before they would even talk with U.S. reps -made U.S. furious! John Adams
Alien and Sedition Acts- gave gov’t right to deport or imprison any foreigner suspected of being a danger to the U.S.- constitutional??
Dem.-Rep. strongly opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts because it conflicts with the Bill Of Rights Did not have enough votes in Congress to over rule them- federal judges all appointed by Federalists so……
They tried to go through the state legislatures to get them changed - their argument was that state legislatures have the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify laws that infringe on the liberties listed in the Bill of Rights
President Political Party Significant Events - XYZ Affair -Alien and Sedition Act -Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions -Jay’s Treaty
Consisted of the wealthier people (bankers, merchants, plantation owners) led by educated elite Feared the “excesses of democracy.” Distrusted common people. Strongest in the North (New England)
Wanted a strong central govt. Economy based on shipping and manufacturing Believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution- (write meaning in your notes)
1. Consisted of more common people (farmers, city workers) 2. Believed government should work for the common man 3. Strongest in the south and west. (Small farmers) 4. Limited govt.- felt power should be shared with the state and local govt. 5. Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution
Strict Interpretation - Only those powers that are written into the Constitution should be allowed Loose interpretation – implied powers – those that believe in a loose interpretation follow the “necessary and proper” clause, also known as the “elastic clause”
“The Constitution was not made to fit us like a strait jacket. In its elasticity lies its chief greatness” Woodrow Wilson
“When the experiment of our government was undertaken...(our guide)...was the Constitution. Departure from the lines there laid down is failure. It is only by strict adherence to the direction they indicate... That we can furnish proof to the world of the fitness of the American people for self government.” -President Grover Cleveland
Jefferson’s Philosophy 1. Faith in the “common man” (farmers) Wanted lower voting qualifications Disliked special privileges – he lived very informally. 2. Believed agriculture should be the basis of the economy. He didn’t encourage industrialization
He wanted to simplify govt. (cut bureaucracy) He wanted to dismantle Alexander Hamilton’s Program (Federalist) Reduce influence of National Bank Hamilton was later killed in a “gentlemen’s duel” by Aaron Burr 3. Reversed the Alien and Sedition Acts He changed the citizenship requirements from 14 yrs to 5 yrs. Pardoned and/or repaid those convicted of sedition
Fought the Judiciary “Midnight Judges” - Pres. John Adams (Federalist) had appointed federalist judges prior to Jefferson’s inauguration.
Jefferson refused the appointments and the case went to the supreme court – Marbury vs. Madison – the Supreme Court created judicial review giving it the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional (Chief Justice John Marshall)
1803-Louisiana Purchase – Jefferson sent reps. To offer to buy port of New Orleans -French offered the whole territory-$15 million -bought the LA Territory from the French (who needed the $ to fight the British). Boosted morale and doubled US territory.
Jefferson questioned the constitutionality of this because this power is not granted in the Constitution This was part of “Manifest Destiny” – belief that the US should extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Democ.- Republican -Fought appointments of Midnight Justices by Adams -Marbury v. Madison -La. Purchase -Lewis and Clark Expedition -1 st Pres. under a new political party’ - “common man” --strict interpretation of Constitution
War of 1812 – “Mr. Madison’s War” Causes: British impressment of American sailors Trouble with Indians that Americans blamed on the British
Washington, D.C. was burned Francis Scott Key writes the “Star Spangled Banner” during the battle at Fort McHenry in Baltimore Battle of New Orleans – Andrew Jackson was the hero – “Old Hickory” Treaty of Ghent – ends war- 1814
– “Era of Good Feeling” The Missouri Compromise – 1820 Missouri applied for admission as a slave state This started arguments in Congress over whether or not to allow slave states in the new territory
The Missouri Compromise stated: 1. Maine was entered as a free state 2. Missouri was entered as a slave state (maintained balance – 12 slave states & 12 free states) 3. 36 degree 30 degree Parallel – all territory north would be free and all territory south would be slave *This ended nationalism and encouraged sectionalism
This period in Amer. History known as the “Era of Good Feeling”- good times! Adams – Onis Treaty 1819- U.S. got Florida from Spain 1823- Monroe Doctrine- Latin American countries were getting their independence- America was concerned that European nations might renew their interest in colonies in the Western Hemisphere- document written to announce the west was closed for colonization
Election of 1824 (Adams vs. Jackson) Jackson won the popular election, but didn’t win the electoral vote Vote went into the House of Representatives who elected Adams and Henry Clay (“unholy coalition”) * Angered Andrew Jackson