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Early Republic.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Republic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Republic

2 George Washington

3 Who was George Washington?
Home State- Virginia Commander in Chief during the American Revolution. 1st President of United States.

4 Why was George Washington so respected?
Known for honesty, leadership, and toughness. War Hero during the American Revolution. Richest man to be President.

5 What were George Washington’s economic policies?
George Washington was a Federalist. Believed the National Government should help the economy. George Washington created America’s first National Government Bank.


7 What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against a new tax on whiskey in 1791. George Washington sent troops and crushed the farmers using the army. Whiskey Rebellion proved the new government was powerful.

8 What was the Federal Judiciary Act?
Law that designed the federal court system with multiple levels with the Supreme Court being the highest level.


10 What was George Washington’s advice in the Farewell Address(1796)?
(1) Told America to stay away from European events (stay neutral in foreign affairs). (2) Political Parties are bad and will fight each other instead of helping America. America should not have political parties.

11 What was the “Cabinet”? The Cabinet is a group of advisers that help the President. They are called Secretaries. (Ex): Secretary of Defense.

12 What is George Washington’s legacy?
Washington set the example for future Presidents. He created the Cabinet. Started the tradition of Presidents only serving two terms.

13 Political Parties

14 What is a Political Party?
A political party is a group of individuals who work together to win elections, operate the government, and shape people’s opinions.

15 What did America’s first political parties disagree about?
The biggest disagreements in America were about the size of the government (big or small) and whether the economy should be farmed based or city based.

16 Who were the Federalists?
Believed in a strong, national government. Believed in a National Bank. Believed the government should help businesses. Mostly lived in cities.

17 Who were some famous Federalists and what did they accomplish?
Alexander Hamilton- First Secretary of State of the U.S. John Adams- 2nd President of the U.S. John Marshall- 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

18 Who were the Democratic-Republicans/Anti-Federalists?
Believed in a weak, national government. Against a National Bank. Believed the government should be as small as possible. Mostly lived in farms.

19 Who were some famous Democratic Republicans and what did they accomplish?
Thomas Jefferson- 3rd President of the U.S. James Madison- 4th President of the U.S. James Monroe-5th President of the U.S.

20 John Adams

21 Who was John Adams? Home State-Massachusetts 1735-1826
Federalist who promoted a strong, central government. Second President of the United States.

22 What were John Adam’s economic policies?
John Adams was a Federalist. Believed the National Government should help the economy. Supported the National Bank.

23 What was the XYZ Affair? The French and British were taking American trading ships. John Adams sent diplomats to speak to the French, but the French disrespected the Americans by refusing to speak to them without a bribe.

24 Why did John Adams become unpopular?
Many Americans wanted to go to war with France. Adams felt that the U.S. Army and Navy was not strong enough to fight a major power. Adams was labeled a coward.

25 What was the Naturalization Act?
Increased the number of years someone had to live in America before being eligible for citizenship from 5 to 14 years. Immigrants voted Democratic-Republican.


27 What was the Alien Act? Authorized the president to deport any aliens considered to be dangerous. Authorized the president to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war.

28 What was the Sedition Act?
Made it illegal for newspapers to criticize the president or Congress. Imposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the new law: Fines Imprisonment

29 What is John Adam’s Legacy?
In weighing his presidency, we have to consider the negative along with the positive: Bad Good Relationship with France damaged. New taxes imposed. Party politics become entrenched. Keeps U.S. out of war, preserves neutrality. Strengthens the Navy. Peaceful transfer of power in 1800.

30 Thomas Jefferson

31 Who was Thomas Jefferson?
Home State-Virginia Democratic Republican who believed in States Rights. Third President, purchased the Louisiana Territory.

32 What were Thomas Jefferson’s economic policies?
Thomas Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican. He wanted the government to be smaller and was against the National Bank.

33 What was the Louisiana Purchase?
1803. Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France. America doubled in size.

34 Why did Thomas Jefferson buy the Louisiana Territory?
The Mississippi River. 2,300 Miles. New Orleans Harbor opens trade. Farmland for farmers.


36 What happened in Marbury v. Madison (1803)?
Chief Justice John Marshall and the Supreme Court gave themselves Judicial Review. The Supreme Court can now declare laws unconstitutional.

37 What was the Embargo Act of 1807?
Forbade export of all goods from U.S. because American sailors/ships were being robbed. Embargo Act was a disaster to the U.S. economy. Why? We need foreign business more than they do.

38 What is Thomas Jefferson’s legacy?
Doubled the size of America. President during America’s most important court case. Promoted smaller government.

39 John Marshall

40 Who was John Marshall? Home State-Virginia 1755-1835
Helped establish Judicial Review as Chief Justice. Ruled over some of the most important cases in U.S. History.

41 What is the Supreme Court?
America’s highest court. 9 Justices, appointed for life. Decides if laws are Constitutional.

42 What is a Chief Justice? The Chief Justice usually writes the opinion of the majority of the Supreme Court.

43 What is the Significance of Marbury v. Madison? (1803)
The Supreme Court can now “check” the other branches of government with Judicial Review.

44 What is Judicial Review?
Judicial Review means the courts can review laws and declare them unconstitutional.

45 What is the significance of Mcculloch v. Maryland? (1819)
(1) States can’t stop the Federal Government from using its rightful powers. (2) The Government has more powers that are written in the Constitution; called implied powers.

46 What is the significance of Gibbons v. Ogden? (1824)
The National Government can regulate trade between the states. National Government is important in the economy.

47 What is the legacy of John Marshall?
The 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Marshall’s rulings made the National Government more powerful.

48 James Madison

49 Who was James Madison? Home State-Virginia 1751-1836
Father of the Constitution President during the War of 1812.

50 What were the causes of the War of 1812?
British interference with American trade. Impressment of American Sailors. British help with Native American revolts.

51 What were the important events of the War of 1812?
Francis Scott Key wrote the “Star Spangled Banner” during the Battle of Baltimore (1814). British captured and burned Washington D.C.

52 What happened during the Battle of New Orleans?
General Andrew Jackson became a National hero by beating the British even though he was outnumbered. Battle actually happened after the war ended.

53 What were the political effects of the War of 1812?
The Federalist Party lost all power because they were against the war even when the war became popular.

54 What were the economic effects of the War of 1812?
Americans became more independent. More factories, less dependent on Europe for its economy.

55 James Monroe

56 Who was James Monroe? Virginia 1758-1831
American President who wrote the Monroe Doctrine which changed American foreign policy by making it more aggressive/strong.

57 What was the “Era of Good Feelings”?
“The Era of Good Feelings” was a period of national pride and political peace associated with James Monroe. Jeffersonian Republicans accept Hamilton’s economic plans.

58 What was the Monroe Doctrine?
Warned European nations that they cannot set up colonies or interfere in Latin American problems anymore. The United States will protect North and South America from Europe.

59 What is the legacy of James Monroe?
James Monroe changed America’s foreign policy from staying neutral to being involved and even forceful.

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