George Washington First President Political Party: ______Federalist_______________ Vice-President: ______John Adams_______________ As the first president, Washington had the difficult job of beginning to run a government that only existed on paper. What paper was that? ______Constitution_____________
1. Cabinet Cabinet—Washington set up a Cabinet to help him run the country. How many departments are there in the Cabinet now? 15 Was the Cabinet in the Constitution? George Washington needed help running the executive branch Who was in Washington’s First Cabinet? Secretary of StateThomas Jefferson Secretary of the TreasuryAlexander Hamilton Secretary of WarHenry Knox Attorney GeneralEdmund Randolph
2. Hamilton’s Financial Plan Hamilton had a four part financial plan which Congress approved in 1790. 1) Assumption of the National Debt— The federal government would take on the debts that the states owed to European banks and to American merchants. These Europeans and merchants would want the country to succeed so they would get their money back. Plus, Hamilton didn’t want these countries or states coming after individual states. 2) Protective Tariff- passed in 1789, a tax on imported goods (goods coming into the country) to raise revenue ($$) for the federal government 3) An Excise (Luxury) Tax—passed in 1791 to raise revenue for the federal government Colonial luxury: whiskey 4) A National Bank— All of the money collected from the tariff and the whiskey tax didn’t go to the cost of running the government, or to old debts. Hamilton didn’t want to pay off all the debts right away because he wanted the foreign countries to WANT the United States to succeed—and not do anything to get in the way. The money left over would go into a national bank.
3. Whiskey Rebellion In 1794 western Pennsylvania farmers protested and refused to pay the excise tax. (the internal tax put on whiskey they made from grain.) They used their extra corn to make whiskey. In some places, whiskey was used in place of currency! The farmers wouldn’t pay. They closed courts and harassed tax collectors. Washington and Hamilton saw the rebellion as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of the federal government. Washington called out 12000 troops from state militias and put down this Whiskey Rebellion. This showed American citizens and the world that the government was committed to enforcing its laws.
4. Foreign Policy of Neutrality What was happening? France and Britain were fighting in Europe. There was a debate brewing in the United States over which side we should ally with. Washington, Hamilton, and other Federalists believed that in the long run the United States would be better off by siding with Britain. Jefferson and other Democrat-Republicans thought we should side with France because they helped us during our Revolutionary War, and because we believed in the French Revolution ideas of “liberty, equality, and fraternity.”
Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality 1793: The United States would not take ____sides__ and would prosecute any civilian found to be selling war supplies to either side. Why wouldn’t we help our good friends, the French? (the same ones who helped us at the Battle of Saratoga—the turning point of the American Revolution)
…but the British still won’t LEAVE and we’re still “skirmishing”
Jay Treaty What did the Jay Treaty say? In the Jay Treaty, written in 1794 and ratified by Congress in 1795, the British agreed to leave their forts in the Northwest Territory expand their trade with the United States The British did NOT agree to stop searching American ships for “deserted” British sailors stop impressments, which forcing American sailors into service in the British navy
5. Two Term Precedent Set In 1796, President Washington refused to run for a 3 rd term. If he had wanted to run for office again, could he have? yes Why or why not? There was not a constitutional amendment yet prohibiting it. Why did he not run for a 3 rd term? He was old. He’d fought in the French & Indian War from 1754-1763, he led the Revolutionary Army from 1775-1781, and was president from 1788- 1796. He had tried to keep the nation politically united, but there were differing political parties and opinions out there that frustrated him. He couldn’t make everyone happy.
Washington’s “Farewell Address” In his farewell address in 1796, G.W. warned the American people that “A system of political parties agitates the Community will ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, and stirs up riot and insurrection.” What do you think he meant by this?
Vice President: Thomas Jefferson (Democrat-Republican) President John Adams (Federalist) 1797-1801
1. Foreign Policy What was happening in France? 1798—War between France & Britain. France was mad that we were siding with the British. They fired on and seized our ships—and we did it back. XYZ Affair: John Adams sent diplomats to France to try and get them to stop harassing American shipping. The diplomats were told by three men who worked for French Minister Talleyrand (no names—they’re called XYZ) that the U.S. would need to pay a bribe in order to meet with French leadership. Americans rallied… “millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” How did Federalists take advantage of this? They increased the size of the army and raised taxes. They created the Department of the Navy, all of which expanded the powers of the national government.
2. US reaction to France/Britain’s war Alien Act President gained right to imprison or deport citizensof other countries residing in the United States. Why might anti-Federalists (now called Democrat-Republicans) be angered at this?
2. US reaction to France/Britain’s war Sedition Act Persons who wrote, published, or said anything against the government were subject to heavy fines and imprisonment. Why might anti-Federalists (now called Democrat-Republicans) be angered at this?
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions Democrat-Republicans thought that the Alien & Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote documents that were presented to the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures which would empower states to “nullify” federal laws. The resolutions were adopted in only 2 states, so the issue died…the idea of nullification would come back though.
Election of 1800 Do you think John Adams had a chance at winning? Thomas Jefferson became president in an election referred to as the “Revolution of 1800” because it marked a peaceful transition of power from one group to another—from the Federalists to the Democrat-Republicans Next class: Political Parties & Jefferson’s Administration