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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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1 The French Revolution and Napoleon

2 Background to the French Revolution
France was divided into three estates First estate-clergy Second estate- nobility Third estate-everyone else Social unrest between the three estates was a long-term cause of the revolution The immediate cause was the near collapse of the French budget Food shortage, slow down in manufacturing Monarch continued to spend money on extravagances

3 Beginnings of the National Assembly
Members of each estate served in the legislative body, the Estates-General Members of the third estate wished to establish a constitutional government In 1789, they declared themselves the National Assembly They would draft the constitution Arrived at the meeting place to find the doors locked King prepared to use force against the third estate Stormed the Bastille (a prison) and the revolution had effectively begun

4 A “New” France National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Basic liberties that French citizens should have Under threat from the French peasants, King Louis XVI accepted the decisions of the National Assembly French church was brought under control of the state Constitution of 1791 Limited monarchy Rise of the Paris Commune Protesting food shortages Took king hostage Much more radical phase

5 Radicalism in France First Republic Death of the King Crisis Begins
National Convention was to draft a new constitution Also served as the ruling body of France Abolished the Monarch and established the French Republic Death of the King King beheaded on the Guillotine Revolution became more radical Crisis Begins Price controls on food Uprisings throughout the country

6 The Reign of Terror Almost 40,000 people killed
If you rebelled against the convention, you were dead Because guillotining took too long, they dug graves and shot individuals

7 Rise of the Revolutionary Army
Eventually grew to over one million soldiers Largest army ever seen in Europe Pushed back invaders and conquered other countries

8 The Directory Constitution of 1795 was written by the Convention
Created an executive committee of five called the Directory Only lasted for four years, because it was known to be corrupt took advantage of the poor Toppled in a coup d’etat (overthrow of government) Napoleon seized power

9 The Rise of Napoleon Rose quickly through the ranks of the French army
Took part in the coup d’ etat of 1799 and helped establish the new government Served as the leader of France and held absolute power In 1802, he was made consul for life He crowned himself emperor two years later

10 Napoleon’s Domestic Policies
Church Established peace with Catholic church Recognized Catholicism as the religion of most French people Laws Introduced Napoleonic Code This codified laws Bureaucracy Created a strong, centralized administration Focused on developing capable leaders

11 Napoleon’s Empire From 1807-1812, Napoleon was the master of Europe
Grand Empire The French Empire Dependent states States run by relatives and friends Allied states Conquered states Sought to spread principles of the revolution Equality, religious toleration, economic freedom The failure of his empire was that he could never conquer Britain

12 The Fall of Napoleon 1812, Napoleon’s army suffers great defeat in Russia Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba He eventually slipped back into France and raised his own army Suffered his final defeat at Waterloo in Belgium He was exiled again and remained so until death

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