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Reunification of China – Sui Song & Tang Chinese Golden Age Chapter 12.

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Presentation on theme: "Reunification of China – Sui Song & Tang Chinese Golden Age Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reunification of China – Sui Song & Tang Chinese Golden Age Chapter 12

2 China During the Era of Division, The Sui Dynasty, and the Tang Dynasty

3 Sui Dynasty Yangdi (son of Wendi) Yangdi (son of Wendi) –Legal reform –Reorganized Confucian education –Canals built, completion Grand Canal - longest in the world (still) –reconstruction of Great Wall –Attacked Korea – costly & disastrous –Defeated by Turks 615 –Assassinated – 618 –early 7 th C - dynasty disintegrated - popular revolts, disloyalty & assassinations

4 Tang Dynasty Scholar-gentry elite based on examinations (not family connections) Scholar-gentry elite based on examinations (not family connections) Highest offices went only to individuals able to pass exams based on the Confucian classics/Chinese literature – some social mobility possible BUT central administration dominated by a small number of prominent families Highest offices went only to individuals able to pass exams based on the Confucian classics/Chinese literature – some social mobility possible BUT central administration dominated by a small number of prominent families Overland trade routes - Silk Road - reaching as far as Syria and Rome Overland trade routes - Silk Road - reaching as far as Syria and Rome Confucian ideology supreme Confucian ideology supreme Result  imperial unity & power of the aristocracy reduced Result  imperial unity & power of the aristocracy reduced Bureau of Censors closely watched all officials. Bureau of Censors closely watched all officials. Specialized exams administered by Ministry of Public Rites Specialized exams administered by Ministry of Public Rites *Powerful cultural influence over Korea & Japan Tang era gilt-silver ear cup with flower motif

5 Tang /Song Economy Silk routes reopened - greater contact with Buddhist, Islamic regions Silk routes reopened - greater contact with Buddhist, Islamic regions Sea trade Sea trade –Use of Junks – increased maritime commerce RESULT  Commerce expands Credit- deposit shops RESULT  Commerce expands Credit- deposit shops Flying money Dev. of cities & urban pop. growth – Tang capital – Changan – pop. 2 million – largest city in world at time Dev. of cities & urban pop. growth – Tang capital – Changan – pop. 2 million – largest city in world at time group of wealthy commoners--the mercantile class--arose group of wealthy commoners--the mercantile class--arose printing & education spread, private trade grew, and a market economy began to link the coastal provinces and the interior printing & education spread, private trade grew, and a market economy began to link the coastal provinces and the interior Landholding & gov’t employment no longer the only means of gaining wealth and prestige Landholding & gov’t employment no longer the only means of gaining wealth and prestige Court portrait painting of Emperor Taizu of Song (960–976)

6 Buddhism becomes fully entrenched in Chinese culture Split in Buddhism Split in Buddhism –Mahayana Buddhism popular in era of turmoil –Chan (Zen) Buddhism common among elite - stressed meditation & appreciation of natural & artistic beauty Empress Wu ( ) supported Buddhism Empress Wu ( ) supported Buddhism –Endows monasteries –Tried to make Buddhism the state religion –50,000 monasteries by c. 850 Persecution of Buddhism under Emperor Wuzong Persecution of Buddhism under Emperor Wuzong – –Monasteries destroyed –Lands redistributed Confucian re-emerges as central ideology Confucian re-emerges as central ideology

7 Tang Decline –Mistress - Yang Guifei – gained power –Relatives gain power in govt Revolt led by An Lushan - Chinese general (Iranian/Turkish) - proclaimed himself emperor; later killed by his own son Revolt led by An Lushan - Chinese general (Iranian/Turkish) - proclaimed himself emperor; later killed by his own son RESULT  civil war; Yang Guifei executed – blamed for rebellion RESULT  civil war; Yang Guifei executed – blamed for rebellion Central government lost its grip on the local administration Central government lost its grip on the local administration last Tang emperor resigns - Warlordism broke out - China divided into north and south - many small shortlived dynasties last Tang emperor resigns - Warlordism broke out - China divided into north and south - many small shortlived dynasties Paintings of Yang Guifei & An Lushan Emperor Xuanzong ( )

8 Song Dynasty Zhao Kuangyin (Taizu) - birth of Song dynasty Zhao Kuangyin (Taizu) - birth of Song dynasty –Scholar-gentry given power over military –Revival of Confucian Thought –Libraries established, old texts recovered Neo-confucians - stressed personal morality & male dominance Neo-confucians - stressed personal morality & male dominance –Hostility to foreign ideas –Gender, class, age distinctions reinforced

9 Scholar in a Meadow, 11th century The Spinning Wheel, by Northern Song artist Wang Juzheng -one of the earliest representations of the invention Example of Chinese pottery

10 Women’s Status – Tang / Early Song Elite women had broader opportunities / careers Elite women had broader opportunities / careers Empresses Wu, Wei & Mistress Yang Guifei – signif. political power Empresses Wu, Wei & Mistress Yang Guifei – signif. political power Legal code supported women’s rights in divorce Legal code supported women’s rights in divorce Some wealthy, urban women had lovers - example of female independence Some wealthy, urban women had lovers - example of female independence Marriage brokers - professional female match-makers Marriage brokers - professional female match-makers Partners were of the same age; marriage ceremonies did not take place until puberty Partners were of the same age; marriage ceremonies did not take place until puberty Rights of women deteriorate in late Song Dynasty Rights of women deteriorate in late Song Dynasty –stressed the roles of homemaker and mother –advocated physical confinement of women –emphasized the importance of bridal virginity, wifely fidelity, and widow chastity –Men were permitted free sexual behavior & remarriage –fewer Buddhist monasteries (fewer women monks) –New laws favored men in property inheritance & divorce Women excluded from education system Women excluded from education system Footbinding - painful, mobility restricting practice Footbinding - painful, mobility restricting practice The Status of women improved during Tang & early Song –started declining during the late Song – WHY?

11 Tang and Song Prosperity: Golden Age - Expanding Agrarian Production Peasants encouraged to migrate to new areas; gov’t provided irrigation Peasants encouraged to migrate to new areas; gov’t provided irrigation Canals built Canals built New crops & technology increased yields. New crops & technology increased yields. Aristocratic estates broken up - more equitable distribution of land for free peasants Aristocratic estates broken up - more equitable distribution of land for free peasants Confucian scholars believed peasants were essential for a stable and prosperous social order Confucian scholars believed peasants were essential for a stable and prosperous social order Scholar-gentry replaced aristocracy Scholar-gentry replaced aristocracy A red lacquerware food tray with gold foil engraving designs of two long-tailed birds and a peony (12 th -13 th C) Chinese ships of the Song period featured hulls w/ watertight compartments (1085–1145)

12 Technological / scientific discoveries—new tools, production methods, weapons— passed to other civilizations - altered the course of human development Technological / scientific discoveries—new tools, production methods, weapons— passed to other civilizations - altered the course of human development Arts / literature passed to neighboring regions—central Asia, Japan, and Vietnam. Arts / literature passed to neighboring regions—central Asia, Japan, and Vietnam. Engineering feats - Grand Canal, dikes and dams, irrigation systems, and bridges Engineering feats - Grand Canal, dikes and dams, irrigation systems, and bridges Banks & paper money stimulated prosperity Banks & paper money stimulated prosperity Explosive powder – Tang invented - fireworks / Song adapted for military use Explosive powder – Tang invented - fireworks / Song adapted for military use Song armies & navies - flamethrowers, poisonous gasses, & rocket launchers Song armies & navies - flamethrowers, poisonous gasses, & rocket launchers Chairs, tea drinking, the use of coal for fuel, compasses, & kites Chairs, tea drinking, the use of coal for fuel, compasses, & kites Tang & Song achievements in science, technology & culture A trebuchet catapult - used to launch the earliest type of explosive bombs

13 Song dynasty falls to Mongols Southern Song – Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty Southern Song – Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River & established their capital at Lin'an Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River & established their capital at Lin'an Kubilai Khan defeated Jin & founded the Yuan dynasty in Northern China Kubilai Khan defeated Jin & founded the Yuan dynasty in Northern China The Chinese economy, until the 18th C, was a world leader in market orientation, overseas trade volume, productivity per acre, sophistication of tools, and techniques of craft production. The Chinese economy, until the 18th C, was a world leader in market orientation, overseas trade volume, productivity per acre, sophistication of tools, and techniques of craft production. –COT  China, as a civilization, retained many traditional patterns, but it also changed dramatically in the balance between regions, in commercial and urban development, and in technology. –Outside influences - Buddhism – sinified


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