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AP World History Chapter 12

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1 AP World History Chapter 12
The Era of the Tang and Song Dynasties


3 Sui Dynasty Wendi Nobleman
Victory over Chen united traditional Chinese Core. Built grain bins for storing grain. Lowered taxes and built massive canals. Leads nomadic leaders to control northern China 589, defeat of Chen kingdom Yangdi Emperor (killed his dad and gets killed by his minister) Established milder legal code Upgraded Confucian education and restored examination system. Extravagant living and building led to social upheaval. (plus making worn out soldiers go get Korea) Sets up new capital at Loyang


5 Tang Dynasty Dynastic system saved by Li Yuan (Duke of Tang)
Son, Tang Taizong, is given throne next Extended boarder to Afghanistan. Continued the re-building of the Great Wall. Moved capital to Changan Re-building of the bureaucracy. Aristocracy weakened Confucian ideology revised Scholar-gentry elite reestablished Bureaucracy Bureau of Censors Examination system bigger than ever before Ministry of Rites jinshi

6 Confucianism and Buddhism
Confucianism and Buddhism potential rivals Buddhism had been central Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism popular in era of turmoil Chan (Zen) Buddhism common among elite Early Tang support Buddhism Empress Wu ( ) Endows monasteries Tried to make Buddhism the state religion 50,000 monasteries by c. 850

7 The Anti-Buddhist Backlash
Confucians in administration Support taxation of Buddhist monasteries Persecution under Emperor Wuzong ( ) Monasteries destroyed Lands redistributed Confucian emerges the central ideology

8 Tang Decline 755 CE, Revolts
Ineffective leaders (Empress Wei) (Xuanzong “hearts” Yang Guifei) Frontier boarders raided Corrupt government officials 907 CE, last Tang emperor resigns

9 Song Dynasty Song founded in 960 C.E (Zhao Kuangyin aka Honest Abe who “collected books rather than booty”) Zhao is renamed Taizu Song unable to defeat northern nomads. Song paid tribute to Liao Founded by Khitan people/Manchuria

10 Song Politics Settling for Partial Restoration
Scholar-gentry patronized Given power over military The Revival of Confucian Thought Libraries established Old texts recovered Neo-confucians Stress on personal morality Zhu Xi (apply philosophy to every day life) Importance of philosophy in everyday life Hostility to foreign ideas Gender, class, age distinctions reinforced

11 Roots of Decline: Attempts at Reform
Khitan independence encourages others Tangut, Tibet Xi Xia kingdom Song pay tribute Wang Anshi (aka FDR Confucian scholar, chief minister Reforms Legalist enthusiasm Cheap loans/gov’t assistance Taxed the scholars Expanded military and agriculture Tried to change education system When his emperor dies, he is out



14 Southern Song Dynasty Jurchens defeat Liao in the North
1115, found Jin kingdom Invade China Southern Song Dynasty New capital at Hangzhou Southern Song Dynasty ( )

15 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age
Canal system Built to accommodate population shift Yangdi's Grand Canal (links China across the Noodle LIne Links North to South Silk routes reopened Greater contact with Buddhist, Islamic regions Sea trade Developed by late Tang, Song Junks (with gun powder rockets!) Commerce expands Credit Deposit shops (banks) Flying money Urban growth Changan Tang capital/2 million Hangzhou Song capital Marco Polo’s favorite

16 Tang and Song Prosperity: The Basis of a Golden Age
Expanding Agrarian Production and Life in the Country New areas cultivated Canals help transport produce Aristocratic estates Divided among peasants Scholar-gentry replace aristocracy Family and Society in the Tang-Song Era Great continuity Marriage brokers Elite women have broader opportunities Empresses Wu, Wei Divorce widely available

17 The Neo-Confucian Assertion of Male Dominance
Neo-Confucians reduce role of women Confinement Men allowed great freedom Men favored in inheritance, divorce Women not educated Foot binding

18 Glorious Age Conclusion
Invention and Artistic Creativity Influence over neighbors Economy stimulated by advances in farming, finance bridges Explosives and projectiles (Used by Song for armaments) Chairs used in household Tea as a common drink Compasses, abacus Bi Sheng Printing with moveable type Scholarly Refinement and Artistic Accomplishment Scholar-gentry key Change from Buddhist artists Secular scenes more common Li Bo Poet Nature a common theme in poetry, art

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