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Mesostigmata Day – 3 Felicity Crotty. Mesostigmata Sejida Uropodina Antennophorina Monogynaspida Trigynaspida Cercomegistina Heterozerconina Microgyniina.

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Presentation on theme: "Mesostigmata Day – 3 Felicity Crotty. Mesostigmata Sejida Uropodina Antennophorina Monogynaspida Trigynaspida Cercomegistina Heterozerconina Microgyniina."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mesostigmata Day – 3 Felicity Crotty

2 Mesostigmata Sejida Uropodina Antennophorina Monogynaspida Trigynaspida Cercomegistina Heterozerconina Microgyniina Heatherelina Gamasina 3 Suborders; One main Suborder with 5 Cohorts




6 Leg segmentation

7 Tarsus IV ventral setae av4/pv4 on sclerite between basi and telotarsus a key diagnostic feature! If present = Sejida or Trigynaspida If absent = Monogynaspida


9 Generalised venter St = sternal shield Ep = epigynal shield V = ventral shield An = anal shield Mst = metasternal shields Trt = tritiosternum

10 Hypostomal setae If linear = Uropodina If triangular = other cohorts within monogynaspida

11 Uropodid Bingo I.D character Pedofossa: recesses into which legs can be withdrawn

12 Epicriina Bingo I.D character Dorsal shield entire, covered with polygonal network of tubercles Also identifiers include first pair of setae on small platelets.

13 Parasitina Shield character I.D Apex of epigynal shield triangular and flanked by large metasternal shield bearing metasternal setae

14 Dermanyssina Shields


16 Oribatida Day – 3 Felicity Crotty

17 Oribatida Paleosomata Enarthronota Desmonomata Mixonomata Brachypylina Parhyposomata Astigmata “Lower Oribatids” Macropyline “Higher Oribatids” Brachypyline 5 Supercohorts; One with three cohorts Nothrina

18 Defining characters of the 6 major Oribatid groups CharacterPalaeosomataEnarthronotaParhyposomataMixonomataDesmonomata & Brachypylina Body Sclerotisation weakWeak to strong Strong Prodorsum type AstegasimeSteg / astegasime Stegasime Body typeDichoidDichoid / ptychoid Dichoid / trichoid Dichoid / ptychoid Holoid Notogastral Scissures Absent or poorly defined Present (1-3)Present (1)None FemurDividedfusedFused Opisthosomal Gland Absent PresentPresent (or secondarily lost) Present

19 Body type Body appears to be divided between legs II-III by a flexible sejugal furrow Subcapitulum

20 Body type Lacks flexible sejugal furrow Box mites 3 segments

21 Body type Fused coxisternum Circumgastric scissure Pygidium Postpedal furrow Pronotaspis

22 Body type 1 2 3


24 Trichobothria Gnathosoma

25 First step to identification is it…?

26 Lower Oribatid - Macropyline Genua of all legs similar to tibiae in size and shape (not knee-like) Leg articulation not in deep acetabula Trochanters I and II small but clearly external. Paired aggenital and adanal plates often distinguishable Coxisternal region often transversely divided by sejugal articulation Subcaptiulum usually stenarthric

27 Higher Oribatid – Brachypyline Genua of legs I-III (& often IV) shorter than tibiae and lacking intrinsic musculature – KNEE Holoid body type Distinct acetubula with trochanters I and II almost totally contained within Apodemato-acetabular system of tracheae Brachypyline venter unified rigid plate Often evolved chelicerae & subcapitulum modified - diarthric

28 Genua knee like Acetabulum is a concave cavity in the body wall where a leg is inserted; in brachypyline oribatids these cavities are where the trochanter articulates with the coxae (fused to body wall) and may contain tracheal stigmata

29 Examples of different Oribatids Numbers relate to susceptibility to degraded environments (5 = very susceptible) Aoki 1996

30 Astigmata Cohort of Oribatida (in Desmonomata currently) Weakly sclerotized (white / pale) Slow moving Lack respiratory stigmata or tracheae (respire through cuticle) Lack segmentation Body divided into 2 main regions gnathosoma and idiosoma (separated by sejugal furrow)

31 Astigmata

32 Palps ONLY 2 segmented Chelicerae are chelate-dentate (3) Have two genital papillae (4) Male has aedeagus (4) Anal opening often flanked by copulatory suckers (6) A claw at apex of tarsus attached to a fleshy pretarsus, supported by sclerotised condylophores (7)

33 Astigmata biology Complete life cycle in several days to weeks Lay up to 800 eggs in a month! Adult average longevity days Have an unusual heteromorphic deutonymphal (often phoretic) Hypopus – highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Lacks mouthparts, often has suckerplate

34 Most important soil genera Tyrophagus Schwiebea Rhizoglyphus Glycyphagus Lepidoglyphus Histiostoma Once you are certain it is an Astigmatid mite, it is very easy to identify to family using Dindal key! If you are feeling adventurous, you can also key to genera!

35 Prostigmata Day – 3 Felicity Crotty

36 Prostigmata Labidostommatides Eupodides Raphignathina Parasitengonina Eleutherengonides Anystides Anystina Heterostigmata 4 Supercohorts; two of which have 2 cohorts within them

37 Comparative Characters Prostigmata EupodinaAnystidParasitengonaRaphignathaeHeterostigmata Palp segments max Palp tibiaLinearThumb claw No stigmataBase of chelicera AbsentBase of chelicera Anterior lateral on propodorsoma F PeritremesNoYesNoYesNo NasoYes No Pairs of trichobothria 1,21 00 imm; 1 F; 0 M Empodial tenant hairs No YesNo (II, III membraneous)

38 Dorso-sejugal suture Dorso-sejugal Suture not distinct Eye Genital papillae Trichobothria


40 Endeostig Prostig

41 Examples of palp thumbclaw

42 Peritremes Stigmata


44 Two different naming systems!

45 5 free leg segments Coxa fused to ventral idiosoma Same segmentation on palp

46 Paired claws and empodium Paired claws

47 Different types of setae and Trichobothria (arrow) Famulus Solenidia

48 If Solenidia is supposed to be “Recumbent”, it is lying down alongside leg Duplex setae: Normal setae alongside a Solenidia

49 Labidostomatidae 1 family Medium to large sclerotized mites “Arnie” mite – look like it has a 6 pack! – Coxal fields expanded 2 pairs prodorsal trichobothria Palps linear Cheliceral bases separate, digits enlarged and chelate-dentate Legs I tactile; legs II-IV walking Predator

50 Parasitengona Members of this group are well known to non- acarologists as velvet mites! Red or green Stigmata & peritremes located between cheliceral bases Palp thumbclaw well developed 1 or 2 prodorsal trichobothria Genital papillae usually present

51 Heterostigmata Very common Minute to medium sized Capitulum head-like Palps linear and reduced to 3 or fewer segments F: stigmata anterolaterally (on shoulders) of prodorsum. Legs I often with tarsal claw as modified hook F: legs IV often reduced or absent

52 Major character systems in Prostigmata Chelicerae modified e.g. fused together / subcapitulum; reduction of fixed digit (Prostigmata are mainly fluid feeders) Modification of the palp Body setation Leg setation Modification of the pretarsus

53 Acknowledgments Soil Mite Experts Cal Welbourne Valerie Behan-Pelletier Roy Norton David Walter

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