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Ephemeroptera - mayflies Intro (from Merritt and Cummins) /VSMIVP%20Key/English/VSMIVP.htm.

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Presentation on theme: "Ephemeroptera - mayflies Intro (from Merritt and Cummins) /VSMIVP%20Key/English/VSMIVP.htm."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ephemeroptera - mayflies Intro (from Merritt and Cummins) /VSMIVP%20Key/English/VSMIVP.htm

2 Lotic and lentic Highest diversity in rocky-bottom, 2nd and 3rd order headwater streams Information primarily from larvae - why?

3 Repro? Eggs laid at surface In some (Baetis), females crawl under water and lay eggs on stems

4 Eggs hatch in months Larval life ~ 3-6 months –Hexagenia in Lake Winnipeg = 1-2 years Many molts ( )

5 Collectors or scrapers usually Detritus, algae, macrophytes, etc.Detritus, algae, macrophytes, etc. Few carnivoresFew carnivores Usually shift diet with sizeUsually shift diet with size Subimago (winged, sexually immature form)Subimago (winged, sexually immature form)

6 Mating Males usually emerge after dusk, females shortly before dawn Mating swarms

7 Morphology of larvae Large eyes, outer position Antennae anterior or ventral to eyes Mouthparts:

8 Thorax Wingpads: on meso- and metathorax Pair of legs on each thoracic segment

9 Abdomen 10-segmented Gills usually on abdomen 3 caudal filaments usually

10 Adult mayfly Males have large eyes

11 You will need to be comfortable with key to family 13 families: Baetiscidae, Potamanthidae, Ephemeridae, Polymitarcyidae, Tricorythidae, Caenidae, Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae, etc. VSMIVP%20Key/English/VSMIVP.htmhttp://www.entomology.umn.edu/midge/ VSMIVP%20Key/English/VSMIVP.htm

12 Ephemeroptera key Baetiscidae = large thoracic notum Armored mayflies

13 Mandibular tusks? Yes? Abdominal gills held laterally = Potamanthidae = hacklegill mayflies

14 Mandibular tusks? Yes, pointed upward, abdominal gills held dorsally = Ephemeridae Common burrowing mayflies

15 Mandibular tusks? Yes, project downward, abdominal gills held dorsally = Polymitarcyidae Pale burrowing mayflies

16 No mandibular tusks? Abdominal gills on segment 2 plate-like, operculate, triangular = Tricorythidae Little stout crawler mayflies

17 No mandibular tusks? Abdominal gills on segment 2 plate-like, operculate, square = Caenidae Small square-gill mayflies

18 No mandibular tusks? Abdominal gills on segment 2 similar to other gills if present, or gills operculate and no gills on segment 2 = Ephemerellidae = spiny crawler mayflies

19 No mandibular tusks? Abdominal gills on segment 2 similar to other gills if present, or gills operculate gills present on segments 1-7 or 2-7 Flattened head and body = Heptageniidae = flathead mayflies

20 No mandibular tusks? Abdominal gills on segment 2 similar to other gills if present, or gills operculate gills present on segments 1-7 or 2-7 Head and body not flat Abdominal gills forked = Leptophlebiidae Prong-gilled mayflies

21 Same characters as last slide: Head and body not flat Gills oval or heart-shape Foreleg claws forked = Metretopodidae Cleft-footed minnow mayflies

22 Same characters as last slide: Head and body not flat Gills oval or heart-shape Foreleg claws simple Long setae on inner fore legs = Isonychiidae = brush-legged mayflies

23 Same characters as last slide: Head and body not flat Gills oval or heart-shape Foreleg claws simple No long setae on inner fore legs Labrum w/deep notch = Baetidae Small minnow mayflies

24 Same characters: Head and body not flat Gills oval or heart-shape Foreleg claws simple No long setae on inner fore legs, spine Labrum entire = Siphlonuridae Primitive minnow mayflies

25 Today: Get comfortable with all mayfly families = run them through key


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