2Outline the types of movement of synovial joints With a partner, conduct some research and use your own body to determine what each term means with respect to movement at the joints of your body:FLEXION, extension, ADDUCTION, abduction, PRONATION, supination, ELEVATION, depression, ROTATION, circumduction, DORSI FLEXION, plantar flexion, EVERSION, inversion
3Flexion and extensionFlexion and extension are two opposing movements that muscles can perform about a joint.Flexion closes the joint angle and flexion opens the joint angle at the joint
4Flexion and extension can be performed at several kinds of joints and are initiated by many of the body muscles
5Flexion & Extension cont’d Like all movements, flexion and extension are performed in a plane that is determined relative to a body position referred to as anatomical position
6F & E – Sagittal Plane Exercises This is a botched slide: The exercises given are for movements in the FRONTAL plane. Your groups job is to write a new slide, using the same subheading, but for the sagittal plane instead.Shoulder movements in the sagittal planeHip movements in the sagittal planeSpinal movements in the sagittal plane
7Abduction & AdductionA motion that pulls a structure or part away from the midline of the body (or, in the case of fingers and toes, spreading the digits apart from the centerline of the hand or foot).. Raising the arms laterally is an example of abduction
8Cont’dThe joint actions that occur in the frontal plane are abduction, or movement away from the midline of the body; adduction, or movement toward the midline of the body; lateral spinal flexion, or bending to the side; and reduction of the spine, or movement from lateral flexion back to neutral.
9A & A – Frontal Plane exercises The frontal plane of movement divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) sides. The four movements that occur in this plane, called joint actions are those that move along with the plane rather than crossing it.The “botched” slide from the sagittal section is useful now.
11Pronation and Supination Supination – is the opposite of pronation, both of which are specific movements of the hands or feet. In supination, the muscle causes the limb to rotate toward the outside, for instance so that the palm is facing upwardPronation - is the opposite of supination, inward movement of the hand or as the foot as it rolls to distribute the force of impact of the ground as you run.
15Rotation & Circumduction Rotation – a motion that occurs when a part turns on its axis. The head rotates on the neck (cervical vertebrae) as in shaking the head “no”
16Cont’dCircumduction - The circular (or more precisely, conical) movement of a body part, such as a ball-and-socket joint or the eye. It consists of a combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. “Windmilling” the arms or rotating the hand from the wrist are examples of circumductive movement.
18Dorsi flexion & Plantar Flexion Plantarflexion (or plantar flexion) - movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the soleThe movement in the opposite direction is dorsiflexion,The movement occurs at the ankle.
20FYI – What are “shin splints”? Shin splints are injuries to the front of the outer leg. While the exact injury is debatable, shin splints seem to result from inflammation due to injury of the tendon (posterior peroneal tendon) and adjacent tissues in the front of the outer/anterior leg.Shin splints are a member of a group of injuries called overuse injuries. Shin splints occur most commonly in runners and aggressive walkers.
21Eversion & InversionInversion - refer to movements that tilt the sole towards (inversion) the midline of the bodyEversion - refer to movements that tilt the sole of the foot away from (eversion) the midline of the body
22E&I exercises/activities Resisted inversion and resisted eversion with resistance bands