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Chapter 7 Motivation and Emotion. What Is Motivation? The driving force within individuals that impels them to action It is produced by a state of arousal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Motivation and Emotion. What Is Motivation? The driving force within individuals that impels them to action It is produced by a state of arousal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Motivation and Emotion

2 What Is Motivation? The driving force within individuals that impels them to action It is produced by a state of arousal or tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need Individuals strive consciously and subconsciously to reduce the tension through behavior they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve of the stress they feel

3 Implications for marketers Ads and promotions are aimed at stimulating the state of tension To be successful, ads have to also provide direction to the advertised brand

4 Classifying Consumer Motivations Researchers put motivation into five categories: 1. Conscious vs. Unconscious 2. High vs. Low Urgency 3. Positive vs. Negative Polarity 4. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic 5. Rational vs. Emotional

5 1. Conscious vs. unconscious Conscious motives are motives we are aware of, the reasons for our behavior are clear, and these motives do not need to be aroused Sometimes we are unaware of the reason why a particular behavior was undertaken; our motivation is unconscious

6 2. High vs. low urgency High urgency needs must be satisfied immediately and may make comparison shopping impossible Low urgency needs can be postponed and enable consumers to shop for the best product at the best price

7 3. Positive and negative motivation Positive motivation drives consumers toward some object or condition Negative motivation (e.g., fear/guilt) drives consumers away from a consequence

8 4. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic Intrinsic motivation is engaging in behavior for the pleasure of the behavior itself; the behavior is the reward Extrinsic motivation is engaging in behavior for a reward that is independent of the activity

9 5. Rational v. emotional motives Rationality implies consumers select goals based on totally objective and utilitarian criteria, such as size, weight, price, miles per gallon, etc.  Ads that provide factual information are aimed at this motivation Emotion implies the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria, such as pride, fear, affection or status  Ads that identify products with a particular lifestyle target emotional motivation

10 Needs and goals as elements of motivation Every individual has needs Innate/primary needs are physiological; they include needs for sustenance (air, food, water, sex) Acquired/secondary needs are learned in response to our culture or environment; they result from our individual psychological state and relationships with others

11 Goals All human behavior is goal-oriented Generic goals are the general classes of goals that will satisfy human needs Product-specific goals are the specifically branded products and services consumers select as their goals

12 The selection of goals depends on a number of factors related to the person or situation: 1. Physical, financial and emotional condition 2. Cultural values and norms 3. Social acceptance of the goal

13 Types and systems of needs For many years, psychologists and others interested in human behavior have attempted to develop exhaustive lists of human needs Lists of human motives often are too long to be of practical use to marketers The most useful kind of list is a limited one, in which needs are sufficiently generic to subsume more detailed human needs

14 Some psychologists have suggested that people have different need priorities based on their personalities, experiences, environments, etc. Others believe that most humans experience the same basic needs, to which they a assign a similar priority ranking

15 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Maslow formulated a widely accepted theory of human motivation based on a universal hierarchy of needs Holds that individuals seek to satisfy lower- level needs before higher-level needs emerge The lowest level of chronically unsatisfied need serves to motivate behavior When that need is satisfied, a new and higher need emerges, and so on…

16 Five basic needs (in order) 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety needs 3. Social needs 4. Egoistic needs 5. Self-actualization needs

17 Some overlap exists between the levels No need is ever totally satisfied, thus multiple levels of needs may affect consumers simultaneously

18 1. Physiological needs The most basic needs, required to sustain biological life the same as the primary needs listed earlier (food, water, air, shelter, clothing, sex) Physiological needs are dominant when they are chronically unsatisfied

19 2. Safety needs After the first needs are met, safety and security become the driving force behind behavior Involve much more than physical safety:  Order  Stability  Routine  Familiarity  Control over one’s life and environment

20 3. Social needs Include love, affection, belonging and acceptance People seek warm and satisfying human relationships with others and are motivated by love for their families

21 4. Egoistic needs Inwardly-directed ego needs reflect an individual’s need for self-acceptance, self- esteem, success, independence, personal satisfaction with a job well done Outwardly-directed ego needs include needs for prestige, reputation, status and recognition from others

22 5. Self-actualization Maslow: most people never fully satisfy ego needs; thus don’t reach this level Refers to person’s desire to fulfill potential

23 Physiological Needs (Food, water, air, shelter, sex) Safety and Security Needs (Protection, order, stability) Social Needs (affection, friendship, belonging) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Ego Needs (Prestige, status, self esteem) Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment)

24 Implications for Marketers Consumer goods often serve to satisfy each of the need levels Enables marketers to focus appeals on a need level shared by a large segment of the population

25 Segmentation applications Specific advertising appeals are directed to one or more need-segment levels

26 Positioning applications Key to positioning is to find a niche—an unsatisfied need that is not occupied by a competing product or brand Maslow postulated that no need is ever fully satisfied Thus needs will always be a motivating force Marketers can identify an unsatisfied need which their competition appears not to be meeting

27 Social motivation theories Some psychologists have identified a trio of needs that, while subsumed within Maslow’s hierarchy, considered individually have unique relevance to consumer behavior 1. Power 2. Affiliation 3. achievement

28 1. Power Relates to an individual’s desire to control his or her environment Closely related to the ego need in that many individuals experience increased self-esteem when they exercise power over objects or people

29 2. Affiliation Suggests that behavior is strongly influenced by desire for friendship, acceptance and belonging People with high affiliation needs tend to be socially dependent on others They often select goods they believe will meet with the approval of peers

30 3. Achievement Persons with strong need for achievement often regard personal accomplishment as an end in itself Tend to be more self-confident, enjoy taking calculated risks, actively research their environments, and value feedback Monetary rewards provide an important type of feedback

31 Seek activities that provide the opportunity for self-evaluation Products that appeal to them include innovative products and do-it-yourself projects Individuals who have achieved success in highly challenging activities (e.g., ocean yacht racing, mountaineering) are appealing as endorsers of products

32 Motivational conflict Occurs when multiple needs arise and fulfilling one goal conflicts with another The end result is frustration Conflict can involve both positive and negative motivation

33 Lewin identified three types of motivational conflict: 1. Approach-approach conflicts 2. Avoidance-avoidance conflicts 3. Approach-avoidance conflicts

34 1. Approach-approach conflicts Arise when consumers face a choice among desirable option—i.e., two positive goals or motivations the more equal the positives, the greater the conflict Marketers can use tactics designed to ease the conflict by making one option more attractive or creating conditions where consumers can have both

35 2. Avoidance-avoidance conflicts Arise when consumers must choose between two options with unfavorable consequences Marketers seek ways to minimize the negative aspects of purchasing their product Marketers may also emphasize the negatives related to avoiding the purchase of the product

36 3. Approach-avoidance conflicts Most typical conflict because every purchase requires parting with something (time, money, energy, risk) Consumers only purchase products when they believe the benefits outweigh the costs It is the job of marketers to convince consumers that their product’s value exceeds its costs

37 Emotions Recall that motives can be rational or emotional  Love, fear, anger, envy, loneliness, sorrow These emotions influence our behavior In recognition, marketers use emotions to sell products

38 How emotional ads work Emotional ads trigger physiological and psychological reactions Marketers use the emotions aroused by the ad to create a bond between the consumer and the product Marketers can then activate the need for the product by stirring the relevant emotion


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