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Motivation and Emotion

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1 Motivation and Emotion
Chapter 7 Motivation and Emotion Motivation and Emotion

2 What Is Motivation? The driving force within individuals that impels them to action It is produced by a state of arousal or tension, which exists as the result of an unfulfilled need Individuals strive consciously and subconsciously to reduce the tension through behavior they anticipate will fulfill their needs and thus relieve of the stress they feel

3 Implications for marketers
Ads and promotions are aimed at stimulating the state of tension To be successful, ads have to also provide direction to the advertised brand What are the implications for marketers? Examples? Deodorants; puncture-free tires; food But… Doesn’t do marketer any good if it stimulates need/want but consumer buys another brand

4 Classifying Consumer Motivations
Researchers put motivation into five categories: Conscious vs. Unconscious High vs. Low Urgency Positive vs. Negative Polarity Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Rational vs. Emotional

5 1. Conscious vs. unconscious
Conscious motives are motives we are aware of, the reasons for our behavior are clear, and these motives do not need to be aroused Sometimes we are unaware of the reason why a particular behavior was undertaken; our motivation is unconscious Example? You buy a new coat because the old one has worn out or is out of style Compulsive shoppers are acting on unconscious needs

6 2. High vs. low urgency High urgency needs must be satisfied immediately and may make comparison shopping impossible Low urgency needs can be postponed and enable consumers to shop for the best product at the best price Examples? Heating system quits; car breaks down Vs. Buying equipment for your trip this summer; car coming off a lease

7 3. Positive and negative motivation
Positive motivation drives consumers toward some object or condition Negative motivation (e.g., fear/guilt) drives consumers away from a consequence Examples? American Express: positive—convenient, accepted everywhere; negative: if your cash is stolen, you’re out of luck Life insurance and home security devices use negative motivation Health club uses which? Either motivation

8 4. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic
Intrinsic motivation is engaging in behavior for the pleasure of the behavior itself; the behavior is the reward Extrinsic motivation is engaging in behavior for a reward that is independent of the activity Examples? A sport such as basketball—some play for the love of the game, others for monetary reward, to gain a scholarship, etc. Reading a book—for personal pleasure or for a course

9 5. Rational v. emotional motives
Rationality implies consumers select goals based on totally objective and utilitarian criteria, such as size, weight, price, miles per gallon, etc. Ads that provide factual information are aimed at this motivation Emotion implies the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria, such as pride, fear, affection or status Ads that identify products with a particular lifestyle target emotional motivation Examples? Car purchase—Volvo vs. BMW convertible watch—Timex vs. Rolex Examples: Ads for the Lincoln Town Car diamond rings

10 Needs and goals as elements of motivation
Every individual has needs Innate/primary needs are physiological; they include needs for sustenance (air, food, water, sex) Acquired/secondary needs are learned in response to our culture or environment; they result from our individual psychological state and relationships with others Examples? All individuals need shelter—it’s a primary need But the type of home we select depends on acquired needs (e.g., Where one can entertain, with a pool)

11 Goals All human behavior is goal-oriented
Generic goals are the general classes of goals that will satisfy human needs Product-specific goals are the specifically branded products and services consumers select as their goals Examples? Going to college is a generic goal; going to UVM is product-specific Wanting a car is general; wanting a BMW is specific Are advertisers more concerned with generic or product-specific goals? Most advertisers are concerned with product-specific goals; However, trade associations (American Dairy Association) promote generic goals—increased consumption of milk

12 Physical, financial and emotional condition Cultural values and norms
The selection of goals depends on a number of factors related to the person or situation: Physical, financial and emotional condition Cultural values and norms Social acceptance of the goal Example of a goal that depends on this? Financial condition determines BMW vs. Tercel Example of a goal that depends on cultural values/norms? Clothing/use of alcohol determined by culture Example of #3? Desire to own a big SUV vs. owning an electric car

13 Types and systems of needs
For many years, psychologists and others interested in human behavior have attempted to develop exhaustive lists of human needs Lists of human motives often are too long to be of practical use to marketers The most useful kind of list is a limited one, in which needs are sufficiently generic to subsume more detailed human needs An important basis of motivation is fulfilling needs, so knowing something about needs is important

14 Some psychologists have suggested that people have different need priorities based on their personalities, experiences, environments, etc. Others believe that most humans experience the same basic needs, to which they a assign a similar priority ranking

15 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Maslow formulated a widely accepted theory of human motivation based on a universal hierarchy of needs Holds that individuals seek to satisfy lower-level needs before higher-level needs emerge The lowest level of chronically unsatisfied need serves to motivate behavior When that need is satisfied, a new and higher need emerges, and so on…

16 Five basic needs (in order)
Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Egoistic needs Self-actualization needs

17 Some overlap exists between the levels
No need is ever totally satisfied, thus multiple levels of needs may affect consumers simultaneously

18 1. Physiological needs The most basic needs, required to sustain biological life the same as the primary needs listed earlier (food, water, air, shelter, clothing, sex) Physiological needs are dominant when they are chronically unsatisfied OK, so now let’s look at the five needs one at a time: What are physiological needs? Maslow said: “For the man who is extremely and dangerously hungry, no other interest exists but food. He dreams food, he remembers food, he thinks about food, he emotes only about food, he perceives only food, and he wants only food.” Anyone watch Survivor? In the US, the majority of the population have these needs met; but there are many (homeless) for whom they have not

19 2. Safety needs After the first needs are met, safety and security become the driving force behind behavior Involve much more than physical safety: Order Stability Routine Familiarity Control over one’s life and environment Examples of goods and services that meet safety needs? Health and availability of health care are safety concerns Savings accounts, insurance policies, education are means to satisfy the need for security Personal protection devices are an example of products marketed to meet this need

20 3. Social needs Include love, affection, belonging and acceptance
People seek warm and satisfying human relationships with others and are motivated by love for their families This need would be emphasized in ads for personal care products, jewelry and other gifts (e.g. diamonds) Current ad on tv: Takes place in St. Mark’s Square in Venice—”I love this man” Ads for long distance calling plans/cameras and film

21 4. Egoistic needs Inwardly-directed ego needs reflect an individual’s need for self-acceptance, self-esteem, success, independence, personal satisfaction with a job well done Outwardly-directed ego needs include needs for prestige, reputation, status and recognition from others Examples? The need to “keep up with the Joneses” reflects an outwardly-directed ego need. E.g., ads for big, expensive cars, top-of-the-line kitchen appliances, etc.

22 5. Self-actualization Maslow: most people never fully satisfy ego needs; thus don’t reach this level Refers to person’s desire to fulfill potential Examples? Athlete training to make the Olympic team Scientist striving to discover a cure for cancer The army’s “Be all you can be”

23 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Safety and Security Needs (Protection, order, stability) Social Needs (affection, friendship, belonging) Ego Needs (Prestige, status, self esteem) Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment) Physiological Needs (Food, water, air, shelter, sex)

24 Implications for Marketers
Consumer goods often serve to satisfy each of the need levels Enables marketers to focus appeals on a need level shared by a large segment of the population Is Maslow’s theory adaptable to marketing strategy? Yes, because… Examples? Level 1:Food, houses and clothing 2. All personal care products 3. Burglar alarms, car alarms, etc. 4. computers, sound systems, tvs, big cars 5. College training, fitness classes, etc.

25 Segmentation applications
Specific advertising appeals are directed to one or more need-segment levels Examples? Mountain Dew ads, directed at teens, stress social needs by showing a group of young people sharing good times; other beverage (Gatorade) ads stress refreshment (physiological need) or caloric content (ego need)

26 Positioning applications
Key to positioning is to find a niche—an unsatisfied need that is not occupied by a competing product or brand Maslow postulated that no need is ever fully satisfied Thus needs will always be a motivating force Marketers can identify an unsatisfied need which their competition appears not to be meeting Examples? Volvo for years filled the safety need; its newer ads focus on egoistic needs as well, stressing status through design Mercedes has sought to occupy the safety niche in recent years What about social needs? For years we saw it in greeting cards (“when you care enough to send the very best”) and photos (remember the “Kodak moment?”). Today it’s cell phones (the dad who gives his daughter the phone with all his numbers pre-programmed) and color printers (the guy who sends his girlfriend the photo of him lying in bed)

27 Social motivation theories
Some psychologists have identified a trio of needs that, while subsumed within Maslow’s hierarchy, considered individually have unique relevance to consumer behavior Power Affiliation achievement Let’s now look at some other theories…

28 1. Power Relates to an individual’s desire to control his or her environment Closely related to the ego need in that many individuals experience increased self-esteem when they exercise power over objects or people Examples? High performance cars and motorcycles; SUV’s Look at some peoples’ backyards and see all those power “toys”

29 2. Affiliation Suggests that behavior is strongly influenced by desire for friendship, acceptance and belonging People with high affiliation needs tend to be socially dependent on others They often select goods they believe will meet with the approval of peers Similar to Maslow’s social need… Examples? Teens: clothing (jeans); cigarettes (formerly)

30 3. Achievement Persons with strong need for achievement often regard personal accomplishment as an end in itself Tend to be more self-confident, enjoy taking calculated risks, actively research their environments, and value feedback Monetary rewards provide an important type of feedback Money is less important for what it can buy than for what it signifies

31 Seek activities that provide the opportunity for self-evaluation
Products that appeal to them include innovative products and do-it-yourself projects Individuals who have achieved success in highly challenging activities (e.g., ocean yacht racing, mountaineering) are appealing as endorsers of products You can probably picture these people. In fact, it may describe some of your parents…

32 Motivational conflict
Occurs when multiple needs arise and fulfilling one goal conflicts with another The end result is frustration Conflict can involve both positive and negative motivation These various needs are net necessarily independent of each other; as a result, sometimes we find…

33 Lewin identified three types of motivational conflict:
Approach-approach conflicts Avoidance-avoidance conflicts Approach-avoidance conflicts

34 1. Approach-approach conflicts
Arise when consumers face a choice among desirable option—i.e., two positive goals or motivations the more equal the positives, the greater the conflict Marketers can use tactics designed to ease the conflict by making one option more attractive or creating conditions where consumers can have both Examples? Buying a new car vs. going on an expensive vacation How can marketers address this conflict? Example? No money down car financing allows consumers to do both Restaurant menu: combination plates help consumer who can’t decide what he wants Special rates, sales, deals, etc. can make one more attractive (e.g., buy a full fare seat, get second free)

35 2. Avoidance-avoidance conflicts
Arise when consumers must choose between two options with unfavorable consequences Marketers seek ways to minimize the negative aspects of purchasing their product Marketers may also emphasize the negatives related to avoiding the purchase of the product Example? Paying to fix up the old car or buying another one Life insurance is a classic example: paying premiums vs. leaving your family unprotected How do they do that? Car: low-rate financing, rebates, payment plans, etc. Insurance: turn it into an investment (theory behind whole life) Examples? Car: high repair bills of keeping older car running life insurance: easy to guess

36 3. Approach-avoidance conflicts
Most typical conflict because every purchase requires parting with something (time, money, energy, risk) Consumers only purchase products when they believe the benefits outweigh the costs It is the job of marketers to convince consumers that their product’s value exceeds its costs

37 Emotions Recall that motives can be rational or emotional
Love, fear, anger, envy, loneliness, sorrow These emotions influence our behavior In recognition, marketers use emotions to sell products One final point about motivation…the role of…. (Slide #9) Examples of emotions that influence behavior? Love: gifts, flowers, greeting cards Examples? Sell: kodak film, greeting cards; long-distance telephone

38 How emotional ads work Emotional ads trigger physiological and psychological reactions Marketers use the emotions aroused by the ad to create a bond between the consumer and the product Marketers can then activate the need for the product by stirring the relevant emotion Example: again, long distance phone calls State Farm: “like a good neighbor…” My wife often cried during the Kodak commercials

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