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MOTIVASI KONSUMEN Pertemuan 03 Matakuliah: Perilaku Konsumen Tahun : 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVASI KONSUMEN Pertemuan 03 Matakuliah: Perilaku Konsumen Tahun : 2009."— Presentation transcript:

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2 MOTIVASI KONSUMEN Pertemuan 03 Matakuliah: Perilaku Konsumen Tahun : 2009

3 Bina Nusantara University 3 Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process Learning Needs wants, and desires Tension Goal or need fulfill- ment Goal or need fulfill- ment Drive Behavior Cognitive processes Tension reduction

4 Bina Nusantara University 4 Types of Needs Innate Needs –Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired needs –Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives

5 Bina Nusantara University 5 Goals Generic Goals –the general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs –e.g., “I want to get a graduate degree.” Product-Specific Goals –the specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals –e.g., “I want to get an MBA in Marketing from Kellogg School of Management.”

6 Bina Nusantara University 6 The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend on their: –Personal experiences –Physical capacity –Prevailing cultural norms and values –Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment

7 Bina Nusantara University 7 Figure 4.3 Achieving Goals by Subscribing to a Magazine

8 Bina Nusantara University 8 Figure 4.4 Different Appeals for Same Goal Object

9 Bina Nusantara University 9 Motivations and Goals Positive Motivation –A driving force toward some object or condition Approach Goal –A positive goal toward which behavior is directed Negative Motivation –A driving force away from some object or condition Avoidance Goal –A negative goal from which behavior is directed away

10 Bina Nusantara University 10 Rational Versus Emotional Motives Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria

11 Bina Nusantara University 11 The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves

12 Bina Nusantara University 12 The Dynamic Nature of Motivation Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves

13 Bina Nusantara University 13 Figure 4.6 New and Higher Goals Motivate Behavior

14 Bina Nusantara University 14 Figure 4.7 Changing Consumer Needs

15 Bina Nusantara University 15 Frustration Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego.

16 Bina Nusantara University 16 Defense Mechanism Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem.

17 Bina Nusantara University 17 Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms Aggression Rationalization Regression Withdrawal Projection Autism Identification Repression

18 Bina Nusantara University 18 Arousal of Motives Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal

19 Bina Nusantara University 19 Figure 4.8 Cognitive Need Arousal

20 Bina Nusantara University 20 Philosophies Concerned With Arousal of Motives Behaviorist School –Behavior is response to stimulus –Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored –Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School –Behavior is directed at goal achievement –Need to consider needs, attitudes, beliefs, etc. in understanding consumer behavior

21 Bina Nusantara University 21 Physiological Needs (Food, water, air, shelter, sex) Safety and Security Needs (Protection, order, stability) Social Needs (affection, friendship, belonging) Figure 4.9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Ego Needs (Prestige, status, self esteem) Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment)

22 Bina Nusantara University 22 Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance

23 Bina Nusantara University 23 Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition

24 Bina Nusantara University 24 Figure 4.10 Appeal to Egoistic Needs

25 Bina Nusantara University 25 Figure 4.11 Appeal to Self- Actualization

26 Bina Nusantara University 26 A Trio of Needs Power –individual’s desire to control environment Affiliation –need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement –need for personal accomplishment –closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs

27 Bina Nusantara University 27 Figure 4.12 Appeal to Power Needs

28 Bina Nusantara University 28 Figure 4.13 Appeal to Affiliation Needs

29 Bina Nusantara University 29 Figure 4.14 Appeal to Achievement Needs

30 Bina Nusantara University 30 Motivational Research Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations. Consumers are not always aware of, or may not wish to recognize, the basic reasons underlying their actions.


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