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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVASI KONSUMEN Pertemuan 03"— Presentation transcript:


Matakuliah : Perilaku Konsumen Tahun : 2009 MOTIVASI KONSUMEN Pertemuan 03

3 Needs wants, and desires
Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process Learning Needs wants, and desires Tension Goal or need fulfill- ment Drive Behavior Cognitive processes Tension reduction Bina Nusantara University

4 Types of Needs Innate Needs Acquired needs
Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives Acquired needs Generally psychological (or psychogenic) needs that are considered secondary needs or motives Bina Nusantara University

5 Goals Generic Goals Product-Specific Goals
the general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs e.g., “I want to get a graduate degree.” Product-Specific Goals the specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals e.g., “I want to get an MBA in Marketing from Kellogg School of Management.” Bina Nusantara University

6 The Selection of Goals The goals selected by an individual depend on their: Personal experiences Physical capacity Prevailing cultural norms and values Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment Bina Nusantara University

7 Figure 4.3 Achieving Goals by Subscribing to a Magazine
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8 Figure 4.4 Different Appeals for Same Goal Object
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9 Motivations and Goals Positive Motivation
A driving force toward some object or condition Approach Goal A positive goal toward which behavior is directed Negative Motivation A driving force away from some object or condition Avoidance Goal A negative goal from which behavior is directed away Bina Nusantara University

10 Rational Versus Emotional Motives
Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria Bina Nusantara University

11 The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves Bina Nusantara University

12 The Dynamic Nature of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves Bina Nusantara University

13 Figure 4.6 New and Higher Goals Motivate Behavior
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14 Figure 4.7 Changing Consumer Needs
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15 Frustration Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. Bina Nusantara University

16 Defense Mechanism Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their self-esteem. Bina Nusantara University

17 Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms
Aggression Rationalization Regression Withdrawal Projection Autism Identification Repression Bina Nusantara University

18 Arousal of Motives Physiological arousal Emotional arousal
Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal Bina Nusantara University

19 Figure 4.8 Cognitive Need Arousal
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20 Philosophies Concerned With Arousal of Motives
Behaviorist School Behavior is response to stimulus Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored Consumer does not act, but reacts Cognitive School Behavior is directed at goal achievement Need to consider needs, attitudes, beliefs, etc. in understanding consumer behavior Bina Nusantara University

21 Figure 4.9 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Safety and Security Needs (Protection, order, stability) Social Needs (affection, friendship, belonging) Ego Needs (Prestige, status, self esteem) Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment) Physiological Needs (Food, water, air, shelter, sex) Bina Nusantara University

22 Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs
Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance Bina Nusantara University

23 Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs
Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition Bina Nusantara University

24 Figure 4.10 Appeal to Egoistic Needs
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25 Figure 4.11 Appeal to Self-Actualization
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26 A Trio of Needs Power Affiliation Achievement
individual’s desire to control environment Affiliation need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging Achievement need for personal accomplishment closely related to egoistic and self-actualization needs Bina Nusantara University

27 Figure 4.12 Appeal to Power Needs
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28 Figure 4.13 Appeal to Affiliation Needs
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29 Figure 4.14 Appeal to Achievement Needs
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30 Motivational Research
Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations. Consumers are not always aware of, or may not wish to recognize, the basic reasons underlying their actions. Bina Nusantara University

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