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Chapter 4 Motivation and Values. 4-2 MotivationMotivation Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do. Motivation refers.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Motivation and Values. 4-2 MotivationMotivation Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do. Motivation refers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Motivation and Values

2 4-2 MotivationMotivation Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do. Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do. Once a need is aroused, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need. Once a need is aroused, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need. Needs can be: Needs can be: –Utilitarian: a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit. –Hedonic: an experiential need, involving emotional responses or fantasies.

3 4-3 The Motivation Process Tension Drive Strength Drive Direction Behavior Want Goal

4 4-4 Motivational Strength The Degree to Which a Person is Willing to Expend Energy to Reach One Goal as Opposed to Another. Expectancy Theory Drive Theory Biological Vs. Learned Needs (Instinct Drives Behavior) Biological Vs. Learned Needs (Instinct Drives Behavior) Focuses on Biological Needs that Produce Unpleasant States of Arousal, i.e. Hunger. Homeostasis: Behavior Which Tries to Reduce or Eliminate This Unpleasant State and Return to Balance. Behavior is Largely Pulled by Expectations of Achieving Desirable Outcomes - Positive Incentives - Rather Than Pushed From Within.

5 4-5 Motivational Direction Needs Versus Wants Specific Way a Need is Satisfied Depends on: Individual’s Unique History, Learning Experiences and Cultural Environment. Needs Versus Wants Specific Way a Need is Satisfied Depends on: Individual’s Unique History, Learning Experiences and Cultural Environment. Types of Needs Hedonic Utilitarian Psychogenic Biogenic

6 4-6 Motivational Direction Motivational Conflicts Achievement Affiliation Power Approach-Approach Two Desirable Alternatives (The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance) Approach-Approach Two Desirable Alternatives (The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance) Approach-Avoidance Negative Consequences Approach-Avoidance Negative Consequences Avoidance-Avoidance Two Undesirable Consequences Avoidance-Avoidance Two Undesirable Consequences Uniqueness Other Consumer Needs

7 4-7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety Social Esteem Self Actualization

8 4-8 Consumer Involvement Involvement The Motivation to Process Information Involvement The Motivation to Process Information Involvement The Level of Perceived Personal Importance and/or Interest Evoked by a Stimulus Involvement The Level of Perceived Personal Importance and/or Interest Evoked by a Stimulus Levels of Involvement Simple Processing “Inertia” (Habit) Elaboration

9 4-9 Conceptualizing Involvement

10 4-10 The Many Faces of Involvement Product: Related to a Consumer’s Level of Interest in a Particular Product.Product: Related to a Consumer’s Level of Interest in a Particular Product. Message (Advertising)- Response: Refers to a Consumer’s Interest in Processing Marketing Communications. Message (Advertising)- Response: Refers to a Consumer’s Interest in Processing Marketing Communications. Purchase Situation: Refers to the Importance of the Situational Context of Buying. Purchase Situation: Refers to the Importance of the Situational Context of Buying.

11 4-11 Strategies to Increase Involvement Use Prominent Stimuli Use Prominent Stimuli Build a Bond With the Consumer Build a Bond With the Consumer Use Novel Stimuli Use Novel Stimuli Appeal to Hedonic Needs Appeal to Hedonic Needs Increasing Consumers’ Attention Include Celebrity Endorsers

12 4-12 ValuesValues A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. Every culture has a set of values that it imparts to its members called Core Values. Every culture has a set of values that it imparts to its members called Core Values. The process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture is Enculturation. The process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture is Enculturation. Acculturation is the process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture. Acculturation is the process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture.

13 4-13 American Core Values Individualism Individualism Freedom Freedom Efficiency and Practicality Efficiency and Practicality Humanitarianism Humanitarianism Youthfulness Youthfulness Fitness and Health Fitness and Health Material Comfort Material Comfort

14 4-14 Applications of Values to Consumer Behavior Research has tended to classify values as being: Research has tended to classify values as being: –Cultural such as security or happiness, –Consumption-specific such as convenient shopping or prompt service, –Product-specific such as ease of use or durability. The Rokeach Value Survey identified: The Rokeach Value Survey identified: –Terminal Values - desired end-states that apply to many cultures, –Instrumental Values - composed of actions needed to achieve these terminal values.

15 4-15 Applications of Values to Consumer Behavior Means-End Chain Model Message Elements Message Elements Consumer Benefit Consumer Benefit Executional Framework Executional Framework Leverage Point Leverage Point Driving Force Driving Force List of Values (LOV) Identifies Nine Consumer Segments Based on Values They Endorse List of Values (LOV) Identifies Nine Consumer Segments Based on Values They Endorse Syndicated Surveys - VALS 2 Syndicated Surveys - VALS 2

16 4-16 Means-End Chain Model Suggests that consumers define product attributes in personal, subjective terms – “What does this attribute do for me?” Suggests that consumers define product attributes in personal, subjective terms – “What does this attribute do for me?” In other words, consumers see a product attribute as a means to some end, which could be a consequence or a value. In other words, consumers see a product attribute as a means to some end, which could be a consequence or a value. –That is, consumers create knowledge structures of linked meanings that connect tangible product attributes to more abstract attributes and consequences, which in turn are associated with more subjective, self-relevant values and goals.

17 4-17 Means-End Chain Model AttributesConsequencesValues Concrete Abstract Functional Psychosocial Instrumental Terminal

18 4-18 Example of Means-End Chain Model Hair Spray Pump Dispenser Concrete Abstract Functional Psychosocial Instrumental Terminal Hair Not Sticky Feel More Attractive Impress Others Self Esteem Light Mist Scope Mouth Wash FluorideAvoid Bad Breath Feel Confident In Social Situation Perform Better Social Recognition (Product class level) (Brand level)

19 4-19 MaterialismMaterialism Materialism refers to the importance people attach to worldly possessions. Materialism refers to the importance people attach to worldly possessions. America is a highly materialistic society. America is a highly materialistic society. –40% of all U.S. households have two or more cars, –Over $200 billion is spent on vacations in a year Materialists are more likely to value possessions for their status and appearance-related meanings. Materialists are more likely to value possessions for their status and appearance-related meanings. However, there are signs that many Americans are developing a different value system that balances work with personal relationships. However, there are signs that many Americans are developing a different value system that balances work with personal relationships.


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