2MotivationMotivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do.Once a need is aroused, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need.Needs can be:Utilitarian: a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit.Hedonic: an experiential need, involving emotional responses or fantasies.
3The Motivation Process TensionThe Motivation ProcessDrive StrengthDrive DirectionBehaviorWantGoal
4Motivational Strength The Degree to Which a Person is Willing to Expend Energy to Reach One Goal as Opposed to Another.Biological Vs. Learned Needs(Instinct Drives Behavior)Drive TheoryExpectancy TheoryFocuses on Biological Needs that Produce Unpleasant States of Arousal, i.e. Hunger.Homeostasis: Behavior Which Tries to Reduce or Eliminate This Unpleasant State and Return to Balance.Behavior is Largely Pulled by Expectations of Achieving Desirable Outcomes - Positive Incentives - Rather Than Pushed From Within.
5Motivational Direction Needs Versus WantsSpecific Way a Need is Satisfied Depends on:Individual’s Unique History, Learning Experiencesand Cultural Environment.Motivational DirectionTypes of NeedsBiogenicPsychogenicUtilitarianHedonic
6Motivational Direction Motivational ConflictsMotivational DirectionApproach-ApproachTwo DesirableAlternatives(The Theory ofCognitive Dissonance)Other Consumer NeedsApproach-AvoidanceNegativeConsequencesAvoidance-AvoidanceTwo UndesirableConsequencesAchievementAffiliationPowerUniqueness
7Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs SelfActualizationEsteemSocialSafetyPhysiological
8Consumer Involvement Involvement Involvement Levels of Involvement The Level of Perceived Personal Importanceand/or Interest Evoked by a StimulusInvolvementThe Motivation to Process InformationLevels of InvolvementSimple Processing“Inertia” (Habit)Elaboration
10The Many Faces of Involvement Message (Advertising)-Response:Refers to a Consumer’sInterest in ProcessingMarketingCommunications.Product:Related to a Consumer’sLevel of Interest ina ParticularProduct.Purchase Situation:Refers to the Importanceof the SituationalContext of Buying.
11Strategies to Increase Involvement Appeal toHedonic NeedsBuild a BondWith theConsumerIncreasing Consumers’ AttentionUse NovelStimuliInclude Celebrity EndorsersUse ProminentStimuli
12Values A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. Every culture has a set of values that it imparts to its members called Core Values.The process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture is Enculturation.Acculturation is the process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture.
13American Core Values Individualism Freedom Efficiency and Practicality HumanitarianismYouthfulnessFitness and HealthMaterial Comfort
14Applications of Values to Consumer Behavior Research has tended to classify values as being:Cultural such as security or happiness,Consumption-specific such as convenient shopping or prompt service,Product-specific such as ease of use or durability.The Rokeach Value Survey identified:Terminal Values - desired end-states that apply to many cultures,Instrumental Values - composed of actions needed to achieve these terminal values.
15Applications of Values to Consumer Behavior List of Values (LOV)Identifies Nine Consumer Segments Based on Values They EndorseMeans-End Chain ModelMessageElementsConsumerBenefitExecutionalFrameworkLeveragePointDrivingForceSyndicated Surveys - VALS 2
16Means-End Chain ModelSuggests that consumers define product attributes in personal, subjective terms – “What does this attribute do for me?”In other words, consumers see a product attribute as a means to some end, which could be a consequence or a value.That is, consumers create knowledge structures of linked meanings that connect tangible product attributes to more abstract attributes and consequences, which in turn are associated with more subjective, self-relevant values and goals.
17Means-End Chain Model Attributes Consequences Values Concrete Abstract FunctionalPsychosocialInstrumentalTerminal
18Example of Means-End Chain Model ConcreteAbstractFunctionalPsychosocialInstrumentalTerminalHairSprayPumpDispenserLightMistHair NotStickyFeel MoreAttractiveImpressOthersSelfEsteem(Product class level)ScopeMouthWashFluorideAvoidBad BreathFeel ConfidentIn Social SituationPerformBetterSocialRecognition(Brand level)
19MaterialismMaterialism refers to the importance people attach to worldly possessions.America is a highly materialistic society.40% of all U.S. households have two or more cars,Over $200 billion is spent on vacations in a yearMaterialists are more likely to value possessions for their status and appearance-related meanings.However, there are signs that many Americans are developing a different value system that balances work with personal relationships.