2SECTION 1 - THE HOPES OF IMMIGRANTS Defineemigrant - people who leave countryimmigrant - people who enter a countrysteerage - cheapest deck on a ship - filthy and illness or death
3Briefly explain each Push Factor Population growth -better food and sanitation caused overcrowding in Europeagricultural changesmake more money selling to citiesforced tenants off land to use to plots to make moneycrop failurespoor harvests - unable to pay debtshunger caused people to emigrate
4Industrial Revolution goods became cheaper than those produced by artisanssome took factory jobs - others emigratedReligious and political turmoilQuakers and Jews left to avoid religious persecutionGermans came after a failed revolution in Germany
5PULL FACTORSFreedom - everyone has the freedom to practice the teaching and religion he prefersEconomic opportunitylooking for a land where they could support their families and have a better futureimmigration varied depending on U.S. economyAbundant landLouisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession - lots of landland-starved Europeans saw as a land of opportunity
6SCANDINANVIANS Where did they settle? regions like Midwest, especially Minnesota and WisconsinWhy did they settle therelakes, forests, and cold winters like their homelandbecame farmers
7GERMANS Where did they settle? Midwest - Wisconsin, Texas and cities Why did they settle there?Wisconsin - could grow oats and Catholic bishop
8Texas - brought land from German nobles and founded Fredericksburg Cities - businesses as bakers, butchers, carpenters, printers, shoemakers and tailorsJohn Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb - world's largest lens makerJews - salespeople who brought pins, needles, pots and news to frontier homes and mining camps
9Irish Where did they settle? City dwellers Why did they settle there? few skills and had to take low-paying, back-breaking jobswomen took in washingmen built canals and railroadsWhy did they come?Irish Catholics could not vote, hold office, own land or go to schoolfamine - no potatoes - no food - forced to emigrate
10OVERCROWDING OF CITIES New York, St. Louis and Cincinnati's population grew greatly in small number of yearsProblemsnot enough housinglandlords squeezed large apartment buildings in small lotscramped living quarters lacked sunshine and fresh airoutdoor toilets overflowed causing diseasecrime flourished
11City ProblemsNew York no public police forceonly a volunteer fire department138 miles of sewers for 500 mils of streetsImmigrant groups set up societies to help newcomers and politicians offered help in exchange for votes
12OPPOSITION TO IMMIGRATION Prejudicea negative opinion that is not based on factsnative-born Americans feared that immigrants were to foreign to learn American ways.some feared that immigrants might come to outnumber nativesSome Protestants feared that Catholics threatened democracy
13Nativistsnative-born Americans who wanted to eliminate foreign influencerefused to hire immigrantspromised to not vote for any Catholics or immigrants running for political office
14Know-Nothing Partystarted by nativistswanted to an Catholics and the foreign-born from holding officecalled for a cut in immigration and 21-year wait to become an American citizendisappeared when north and south branches couldn't agree on slavery
15What were the push-pull factors that led to immigration? • How did the arrival of so many immigrants affect U.S. cities?• What was the Know-Nothing Party, and what was its point of view about immigration?
17AMERICAN WRITERS Romanticism – stressed the individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion.Drew from natureJames Fennimore Cooper – The Last of the MohicansFrances Parkman – The Oregon Trail
18Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Noah WebsterPublished American Dictionary of the English LanguageGave American, not British, spellings and included American SlangHenry Wadsworth Longfellow –Wrote many poems that retold stories from historyPaul Revere’s Ride
19AMERICAN ARTISTS Hudson River School Artists painted peaceful landscapes of mountains, forests and riversPaintings that conveyed the majesty of the American LandscapeJohn James Audubon – sketched birds and animals of his adopted countryAfrican AmericansMade beautiful baskets, quilts, and potteryDavid Drake signed pottery he created.
22WRITERS AND WORK Ralph Waldo Emerson Urged Americans to cast off European influence and develop their own beliefsLearn about life from self-examination and from nature as well as books
23Henry David ThoreauBelieved people should live by their own individual standardsTranscendentalismTaught that the spiritual world is more important than the physical worldTaught people to find truth within themselves – through feeling and intuitionCivil disobedienceUrged people not to obey laws they considered unjustPeacefully refuse to obey laws
24Margaret Fuller – in magazine and book she argued for women’s rights Walt WhitmanPublished Leaves of GrassHe and Dickinson shaped modern poetry by experimenting with languageEmily DickinsonWrote poems on pieces of paper that she sewed into bookletsSubjects of God, nature, love and deathMost poems published after her death.
25Edgar Allan Poe – terrifying tales that influence today’s horror story writers – first detective storyNathaniel Hawthorne – depicted love, guilt and revenge during Puritan times in The Scarlet Letter.Herman Melville – wrote Moby Dick about a man’s destructive desire to kill a white whale
26SECTION QUESTION What was romanticism and how did Americans adapt it? • What is civil disobedience and what did Thoreau do that is an example of it?• How did the writers of the mid-1800s shape modern literature?
28REVIVALS Second Great Awakening Revival – a meeting to reawaken religious faithCircuit riders – preacher who rode from town to town holding meetings in a tentPreachers said that anyone could choose salvation and this appealed to equality-loving AmericansCharles Finney preached that “all sin consists in selfishness” and that religious faith led people to help others. – helped to awaken spirit of reform
29Temperance a campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol Workers spent most of their wages on alcohol – leaving families without enough money to live onMany women joined temperance movementBusiness owners joined because they needed workers who could keep schedules and run machinesAlcohol made it hard for workers to do either
30WORKERS RIGHTS Improvements in working conditions Factory work was noisy, boring and unsafeLabor union – a group of workers who band together to seek better working conditions.Strike – stop working to demand better conditionsWorkers called for shorter hours and higher wages
31IMPROVING EDUCATION Horace Mann Public education “the great equalizer”“education creates or develops new treasures—treasures never before possessed or dreamed of by any one”Led to opening of public elementary and high schoolsLed to opening of hundreds of private colleges.
32Women not allowed into colleges Elizabeth Blackwell first women to obtain Medical Degree in U.S.African Americans faced obstaclesSouth illegal to teach an enslaved person to readNorth most public schools barred African-American childrenColleges would only take 1 or 2 at a time.
33CARING FOR THE NEEDY Dorethea Dix A reformer who discovered women who were locked in cold, filthy cells because they were mentally illFound mentally ill received no treatment and were usually chained and beatenThrough her efforts 32 new hospitals were built for mentally ill
34Samuel G. Howe – opened Perkins School for the Blind in Boston Prisons Thomas H. Gallaudet – opened the first American school for deaf childrenSamuel G. Howe – opened Perkins School for the Blind in BostonPrisonsDebtors, lifelong criminals and child offenders were put in the same cellsReformers demanded that children go to special schoolsCalled for rehabilitation of adult prisoners
35PUBLICATIONS Penny Papers Ladies Magazines Cheaper newsprint and invention of the steam-driven press lowered the price of a newspaper to a pennyCarried serious news but also gripping stories of fires and crimeLadies MagazinesSarah Hale – used writing to support her familyMagazine advocated education for womenSuggested that men and women were responsible for different, but equally important, areas of life
36IDEAL COMMUNITIES Utopia – an ideal society New Harmony, Indiana & Brook Farm MassachusettsResidents received food and other necessities in exchange for workExperienced conflicts and financial difficultiesEnded only after a few years
37ShakerCalled this because they shook with emotion during church servicesVowed not marry or have childrenShared goods with each other and believed that men and women were equalRefused to fight for any reasonFarmed and built simple furnitureDepended on converts and adopting children to keep their communities going
38SECTION QUESTIONSHow did the Second Great Awakening influence the reform movement?• How did labor unions try to force business owners to improve working conditions?• What were women’s contributions to the reform movement?
40ABOLITIONISTS People who led the movement to end slavery David Walker Wrote a pamphlet urging slaves to revoltHeard life was in danger – died mysteriouslyWilliam Lloyd GarrisonPublished abolitionist newspaper called The LiberatorBoston mob tried to hang but mayor stopped
41Grimke SistersBelieved that slavery was morally wrongJoined Quakers and American Anti-Slavery SocietySpoke out for abolition even though they were criticized for it.
42Frederick DouglassCareer as a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery SocietyPublished a autobiography to prove his life as a slaveOn return from a two year speaking tour he brought his freedom and began publishing an antislavery newspaper
43Sojourner TruthStarted life as slave but went to live with Quakers who set her freeHelped her win court battle to win young son from slaveryWent out to declare truth to the people and drew huge crowds in the North
44Harriet TubmanOne of the most famous conductors of the underground railroadShe escaped and make 19 dangerous trips on the underground railroadCarried a pistol to frighten slave hunters and medicine to quiet crying babies
45UNDERGROUND RAILROADAn aboveground series of escape routes from the South to the NorthWas not underground or an actual railroadTraveled on foot, wagons, boats and trains.Usually traveled by night and hid by day in places called stationsStables, attics and cellars all served as stations.
46WOMEN REFORMERS World Anti-slavery Convention Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton went to attendWere not allowed to enter the convention because they were women – not allowed to speak in publicHad to sit behind heavy curtain and William Lloyd Garrisons joined them
47Women’s rights in 1800 Few legal or political rights Could not vote, sit on juries or hold public officeLaws treated women as childrenMost states husband controlled any property wife inherited and any wages she might earn.
48Seneca Falls Convention Women’s right convention held by Stanton and MottAttracted men and womenWrote a Declaration of Sentiments that declared all men and women were equalAll resolutions passed except for suffrage – right to vote
49Other CallsSojourner Truth – gave speech that urged men to give women their rightsMaria MitchellFounded Association for the Advancement of womenAn astronomer who discovered a cometElected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences – first womanSusan B. AnthonySkilled organizer who worked in the temperance and antislavery movementsBuilt women’s movement into a national organization
50SECTION QUESTIONSWhy were freedom of speech and freedom of the press important to the abolitionist movement?• What were Frederick Douglass’s contributions to the abolitionist movement?• What were Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s contributions to the women’s rights movement?