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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 A NEW SPIRIT OF CHANGE."— Presentation transcript:


Define emigrant - people who leave country immigrant - people who enter a country steerage - cheapest deck on a ship - filthy and illness or death

3 Briefly explain each Push Factor
Population growth -better food and sanitation caused overcrowding in Europe agricultural changes make more money selling to cities forced tenants off land to use to plots to make money crop failures poor harvests - unable to pay debts hunger caused people to emigrate

4 Industrial Revolution
goods became cheaper than those produced by artisans some took factory jobs - others emigrated Religious and political turmoil Quakers and Jews left to avoid religious persecution Germans came after a failed revolution in Germany

5 PULL FACTORS Freedom - everyone has the freedom to practice the teaching and religion he prefers Economic opportunity looking for a land where they could support their families and have a better future immigration varied depending on U.S. economy Abundant land Louisiana Purchase and Mexican Cession - lots of land land-starved Europeans saw as a land of opportunity

6 SCANDINANVIANS Where did they settle?
regions like Midwest, especially Minnesota and Wisconsin Why did they settle there lakes, forests, and cold winters like their homeland became farmers

7 GERMANS Where did they settle? Midwest - Wisconsin, Texas and cities
Why did they settle there? Wisconsin - could grow oats and Catholic bishop

8 Texas - brought land from German nobles and founded Fredericksburg
Cities - businesses as bakers, butchers, carpenters, printers, shoemakers and tailors John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb - world's largest lens maker Jews - salespeople who brought pins, needles, pots and news to frontier homes and mining camps

9 Irish Where did they settle? City dwellers Why did they settle there?
few skills and had to take low-paying, back-breaking jobs women took in washing men built canals and railroads Why did they come? Irish Catholics could not vote, hold office, own land or go to school famine - no potatoes - no food - forced to emigrate

New York, St. Louis and Cincinnati's population grew greatly in small number of years Problems not enough housing landlords squeezed large apartment buildings in small lots cramped living quarters lacked sunshine and fresh air outdoor toilets overflowed causing disease crime flourished

11 City Problems New York no public police force only a volunteer fire department 138 miles of sewers for 500 mils of streets Immigrant groups set up societies to help newcomers and politicians offered help in exchange for votes

Prejudice a negative opinion that is not based on facts native-born Americans feared that immigrants were to foreign to learn American ways. some feared that immigrants might come to outnumber natives Some Protestants feared that Catholics threatened democracy

13 Nativists native-born Americans who wanted to eliminate foreign influence refused to hire immigrants promised to not vote for any Catholics or immigrants running for political office

14 Know-Nothing Party started by nativists wanted to an Catholics and the foreign-born from holding office called for a cut in immigration and 21-year wait to become an American citizen disappeared when north and south branches couldn't agree on slavery

15 What were the push-pull factors that led to immigration?
• How did the arrival of so many immigrants affect U.S. cities? • What was the Know-Nothing Party, and what was its point of view about immigration?


17 AMERICAN WRITERS Romanticism –
stressed the individual, imagination, creativity, and emotion. Drew from nature James Fennimore Cooper – The Last of the Mohicans Frances Parkman – The Oregon Trail

18 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow –
Noah Webster Published American Dictionary of the English Language Gave American, not British, spellings and included American Slang Henry Wadsworth Longfellow – Wrote many poems that retold stories from history Paul Revere’s Ride

19 AMERICAN ARTISTS Hudson River School
Artists painted peaceful landscapes of mountains, forests and rivers Paintings that conveyed the majesty of the American Landscape John James Audubon – sketched birds and animals of his adopted country African Americans Made beautiful baskets, quilts, and pottery David Drake signed pottery he created.



22 WRITERS AND WORK Ralph Waldo Emerson
Urged Americans to cast off European influence and develop their own beliefs Learn about life from self-examination and from nature as well as books

23 Henry David Thoreau Believed people should live by their own individual standards Transcendentalism Taught that the spiritual world is more important than the physical world Taught people to find truth within themselves – through feeling and intuition Civil disobedience Urged people not to obey laws they considered unjust Peacefully refuse to obey laws

24 Margaret Fuller – in magazine and book she argued for women’s rights
Walt Whitman Published Leaves of Grass He and Dickinson shaped modern poetry by experimenting with language Emily Dickinson Wrote poems on pieces of paper that she sewed into booklets Subjects of God, nature, love and death Most poems published after her death.

25 Edgar Allan Poe – terrifying tales that influence today’s horror story writers – first detective story Nathaniel Hawthorne – depicted love, guilt and revenge during Puritan times in The Scarlet Letter. Herman Melville – wrote Moby Dick about a man’s destructive desire to kill a white whale

26 SECTION QUESTION What was romanticism and how did Americans adapt it?
• What is civil disobedience and what did Thoreau do that is an example of it? • How did the writers of the mid-1800s shape modern literature?


28 REVIVALS Second Great Awakening
Revival – a meeting to reawaken religious faith Circuit riders – preacher who rode from town to town holding meetings in a tent Preachers said that anyone could choose salvation and this appealed to equality-loving Americans Charles Finney preached that “all sin consists in selfishness” and that religious faith led people to help others. – helped to awaken spirit of reform

29 Temperance a campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol
Workers spent most of their wages on alcohol – leaving families without enough money to live on Many women joined temperance movement Business owners joined because they needed workers who could keep schedules and run machines Alcohol made it hard for workers to do either

30 WORKERS RIGHTS Improvements in working conditions
Factory work was noisy, boring and unsafe Labor union – a group of workers who band together to seek better working conditions. Strike – stop working to demand better conditions Workers called for shorter hours and higher wages

Public education “the great equalizer” “education creates or develops new treasures—treasures never before possessed or dreamed of by any one” Led to opening of public elementary and high schools Led to opening of hundreds of private colleges.

32 Women not allowed into colleges
Elizabeth Blackwell first women to obtain Medical Degree in U.S. African Americans faced obstacles South illegal to teach an enslaved person to read North most public schools barred African-American children Colleges would only take 1 or 2 at a time.

A reformer who discovered women who were locked in cold, filthy cells because they were mentally ill Found mentally ill received no treatment and were usually chained and beaten Through her efforts 32 new hospitals were built for mentally ill

34 Samuel G. Howe – opened Perkins School for the Blind in Boston Prisons
Thomas H. Gallaudet – opened the first American school for deaf children Samuel G. Howe – opened Perkins School for the Blind in Boston Prisons Debtors, lifelong criminals and child offenders were put in the same cells Reformers demanded that children go to special schools Called for rehabilitation of adult prisoners

35 PUBLICATIONS Penny Papers Ladies Magazines
Cheaper newsprint and invention of the steam-driven press lowered the price of a newspaper to a penny Carried serious news but also gripping stories of fires and crime Ladies Magazines Sarah Hale – used writing to support her family Magazine advocated education for women Suggested that men and women were responsible for different, but equally important, areas of life

36 IDEAL COMMUNITIES Utopia – an ideal society
New Harmony, Indiana & Brook Farm Massachusetts Residents received food and other necessities in exchange for work Experienced conflicts and financial difficulties Ended only after a few years

37 Shaker Called this because they shook with emotion during church services Vowed not marry or have children Shared goods with each other and believed that men and women were equal Refused to fight for any reason Farmed and built simple furniture Depended on converts and adopting children to keep their communities going

38 SECTION QUESTIONS How did the Second Great Awakening influence the reform movement? • How did labor unions try to force business owners to improve working conditions? • What were women’s contributions to the reform movement?


40 ABOLITIONISTS People who led the movement to end slavery David Walker
Wrote a pamphlet urging slaves to revolt Heard life was in danger – died mysteriously William Lloyd Garrison Published abolitionist newspaper called The Liberator Boston mob tried to hang but mayor stopped

41 Grimke Sisters Believed that slavery was morally wrong Joined Quakers and American Anti-Slavery Society Spoke out for abolition even though they were criticized for it.

42 Frederick Douglass Career as a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society Published a autobiography to prove his life as a slave On return from a two year speaking tour he brought his freedom and began publishing an antislavery newspaper

43 Sojourner Truth Started life as slave but went to live with Quakers who set her free Helped her win court battle to win young son from slavery Went out to declare truth to the people and drew huge crowds in the North

44 Harriet Tubman One of the most famous conductors of the underground railroad She escaped and make 19 dangerous trips on the underground railroad Carried a pistol to frighten slave hunters and medicine to quiet crying babies

45 UNDERGROUND RAILROAD An aboveground series of escape routes from the South to the North Was not underground or an actual railroad Traveled on foot, wagons, boats and trains. Usually traveled by night and hid by day in places called stations Stables, attics and cellars all served as stations.

46 WOMEN REFORMERS World Anti-slavery Convention
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton went to attend Were not allowed to enter the convention because they were women – not allowed to speak in public Had to sit behind heavy curtain and William Lloyd Garrisons joined them

47 Women’s rights in 1800 Few legal or political rights
Could not vote, sit on juries or hold public office Laws treated women as children Most states husband controlled any property wife inherited and any wages she might earn.

48 Seneca Falls Convention
Women’s right convention held by Stanton and Mott Attracted men and women Wrote a Declaration of Sentiments that declared all men and women were equal All resolutions passed except for suffrage – right to vote

49 Other Calls Sojourner Truth – gave speech that urged men to give women their rights Maria Mitchell Founded Association for the Advancement of women An astronomer who discovered a comet Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences – first woman Susan B. Anthony Skilled organizer who worked in the temperance and antislavery movements Built women’s movement into a national organization

50 SECTION QUESTIONS Why were freedom of speech and freedom of the press important to the abolitionist movement? • What were Frederick Douglass’s contributions to the abolitionist movement? • What were Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s contributions to the women’s rights movement?


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