8 Severe food shortage leading to starvation FamineSevere food shortage leading to starvation
9 PrejudiceA negative opinion that is not based on facts
10 NativistNative-born American who wanted to eliminate foreign influence
11 One American’s Story1) Gjert Hovland and his family left Norway for America2) Gjert wrote home telling people they will find employment and plenty of room in America
12 Why People Migrated1) Most immigrants endured hardships to come to America.2) Many immigrants came from Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, and China.3) Push Factors include Population growth, agricultural changes, crop failures, industrial revolution, and religious and political turmoil.4) Pull Factors are Freedom, economic opportunity, and abundant land.
13 Scandinavians Seek Land 1) Public land in America was sold for $1.25 an acre, which lured thousands of Scandinavians2) The Swedish government tried to halt emigration with restricting laws, but they did not last.3) Scandinavians chose regions that felt familiar like Minnesota and Wisconsin
14 Germans Pursue Economic Opportunity 1) Germans moved to the Midwest because of climate similar to their native land2) Germans also settled in Texas because German nobles bought land and sold it to German immigrants3) German immigrants worked as bakers, butchers, carpenters, printers, shoemakers, and tailors4) The Germans were the largest immigrant group of the 1800s and strongly influenced American culture
15 The Irish Flee Hunger1) Because of the poverty and lack of rights by Britain’s rule, some Irish came to America in the early 1800s.2) Then, a disease attacked Ireland’s main food crop, the potato, causing severe food shortage called a famine3) Irish farmers became city-dwellers in America arriving with little or no savings4) The uneducated Irish immigrants arrived with few skills and had to take low-paying, back-breaking jobs.
16 U.S. Cities Face Overcrowding 1) New York's population jumped from 60, ,000. Some cities were doubling population every 7-9 years2) Rapid growth brought problems, not enough housing, greedy landlords, and cramped living conditions3) Cities were unprepared to tackle these problems, before 1845 New York City had no public police force.
17 Some Americans Oppose Immigration 1) Some native-born Americans feared that immigrants were too foreign to learn American ways2) Immigrants faced anger and prejudice3) Native-born Americans who wanted to eliminate foreign influence called themselves nativists4) They started a party called the Know-Nothing Party that wanted to ban Catholics and foreigners from holding office.
26 One American’s Story1) Many individuals in the mid-1800s demanded equal rights for African Americans and women
27 Abolitionists Call for Ending Slavery 1) By 1804 Northern states had outlawed slavery2) Many news articles were being printed about ending slavery3) Two famous abolitionists were Southern women Sarah and Angelina Grimke, women were not supposed to lecture in public but they did anyway4) John Quincy Adams was in favor of fighting slavery
28 Eye Witnesses to Slavery 1) Two moving abolitionist speakers, Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth, spoke from their own experiences2) People didn’t believe Douglass used to be enslaved because he spoke so well, he wrote a book about his experiences as a slave3) Sojourner Truth was also a slave and a good speaker, she fled her owners and lived with Quakers who set her free
29 The Underground Railroad 1) Some brave people helped slaves escape to freedom along the Underground Railroad2) it was actually an aboveground series of escape routes from the South to the North3) The runaways usually traveled by night and hid by day in places called stations
30 Harriet Tubman1) One of the most famous conductors on the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman2) After escaping, Harriet made 19 dangerous journeys to free other people
31 Women Reformers Face Barriers 1) Two other well known women abolitionists were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott2) However, these women face their own problems, they could not enter anti-slavery conventions because they were women3) Most men agreed that women should stay out of public life, women in the 1800s enjoyed few legal or political rights4) Stanton and Mott decided to hold a convention to demand equality for women
32 The Seneca Falls Convention 1) Stanton and Mott held a convention for women’s rights2) The motto of the convention was “all men and women are created equal”3) Elizabeth and Frederick Douglass had to fight for suffrage during the convention4) many people poked fun at women who wanted to vote and be involved in politics
33 Continued Calls for Women’s Rights 1) Three powerful voices aided the growing women’s movement, Sojourner Truth, Maria Mitchell, and Susan B. Anthony2) Maria Mitchell founded the Associated for the Advancement of Women3) Susan B. Anthony built the women’s movement into a national organization