Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BOKO HARAM AND ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN NIGERIA Professor Osita Afoaku School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University Bloomington,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BOKO HARAM AND ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN NIGERIA Professor Osita Afoaku School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University Bloomington,"— Presentation transcript:

1 BOKO HARAM AND ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN NIGERIA Professor Osita Afoaku School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana o o o o o ssss aaaa ffff oooo aaaa kkkk uuuu iiii nnnn dddd iiii aaaa nnnn aaaa.... eeee dddd uuuuOffice: (812)

2 Historical Backdrop to Boko Haram President Babangida’s foreign policy and Nigeria’s OIC membership President Babangida’s foreign policy and Nigeria’s OIC membership Adoption of Sharia by 9 Northern states (plus partial adoption by 3) since 1999, posing a serious challenge to constitutional separation of state and religion Adoption of Sharia by 9 Northern states (plus partial adoption by 3) since 1999, posing a serious challenge to constitutional separation of state and religion December rise of Maitatsine in the Northern commercial city of Kano – 5000 lives lost in uprising December rise of Maitatsine in the Northern commercial city of Kano – 5000 lives lost in uprising Leader – Alhaji Mohammadu Marwa Maitatsine Leader – Alhaji Mohammadu Marwa Maitatsine Maitatsine considered as a rebel among mainstream Muslim clerics Maitatsine considered as a rebel among mainstream Muslim clerics Used adulterated version of the Koran, with his name in place of that of Prophet Mohammed Used adulterated version of the Koran, with his name in place of that of Prophet Mohammed Preached against use of modern technologies such as motorcycles, automobiles, bicycles, radio, television, wristwatch, etc. Preached against use of modern technologies such as motorcycles, automobiles, bicycles, radio, television, wristwatch, etc. Killed in the Kano violence of 1980; his followers continued to spread his radical message among the urban poor across the northern region; 1985 last major Maitatsine uprising Killed in the Kano violence of 1980; his followers continued to spread his radical message among the urban poor across the northern region; 1985 last major Maitatsine uprising

3 Rise of Boko Haram Boko Haram (Western education is evil) surfaced as “Nigerian Taliban” during Obasanjo’s era Founding leader Mohammed Yusuf, a high school drop out who studied the Koran in Niger and Chad and came back with radical religious views; Yusuf established a sect in 2001 under the name Yusufiyya in Maiduguri Yusuf coopted into Boko Haram between 2001 and 2009 when the sect sparked a bloody uprising in Maiduguri; the 2009 crisis earned the group the name Boko Haram which reflects its anti-Western ideology Following the 2009 religious uprising Yusuf was killed while in police custody Mallam Abubakar Shekau current spiritual leader of Boko Haram Blind commitment to violent fundamentalism and the islamization project

4 Boko Haram: Mission Jihadist conquest to ensure Northern political dominance through islamization of Nigeria Jihad translates to war against Western cultural influence – Western democracy, Western education and Christianity, modern governmental institutions and other symbols of Western influence Islamic fundamentalism as mobilizational tool The Almajiri System – abused and manipulated for narrow political ends 75 percent northern population poor; 60 percent live on less than 1 US dollar a day; 32 percent literacy rate in the north (68 % national rate)

5 Membership Most members drawn from Islamic clerics and students, professionals, students of tertiary institutions in Borno and Yobe states (key Sharia states) Most members drawn from Islamic clerics and students, professionals, students of tertiary institutions in Borno and Yobe states (key Sharia states) School drop-outs enrolled in Madrassa or Koranic schools School drop-outs enrolled in Madrassa or Koranic schools Northern politicians who represent “opportunistic face of Islam” Northern politicians who represent “opportunistic face of Islam” Dubious members of the state security agencies who help the group with training Dubious members of the state security agencies who help the group with training

6 Targets of recent BH violence Targets of recent BH violence State security agencies – the police and army State security agencies – the police and army Churches/Christians Churches/Christians Schools Schools Open markets Open markets The media – particularly newspapers The media – particularly newspapers Prominent government officials and private citizens Prominent government officials and private citizens Moderate Muslims Moderate Muslims United Nations United Nations Government informants Government informants

7 Foreign support for BH Ties with al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Somalia’s al-Shabaab Ties with al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Somalia’s al-Shabaab Foreign terrorist groups provide funds, training and weapons to BH militants Foreign terrorist groups provide funds, training and weapons to BH militants West African countries such as Cameroun, Benin, Niger, Mauritania, and Chad provide sanctuary for BH militants West African countries such as Cameroun, Benin, Niger, Mauritania, and Chad provide sanctuary for BH militants

8 Sources of Deadly Weapons Smuggling Smuggling Robbery Robbery Looting of armories or sales from servicemen Looting of armories or sales from servicemen Influx of illegal alien arms through Nigeria’s porous borders Influx of illegal alien arms through Nigeria’s porous borders Illegal arms transfer enabled by poor surveillance and intelligence gathering of Nigeria’s security agencies Illegal arms transfer enabled by poor surveillance and intelligence gathering of Nigeria’s security agencies

9 BH far more brutal than other groups BH resources – machete, AK-47, bombs, motorcycles, cars, suicide bombers, cell phones, internet, websites, media releases through the internet and newspapers BH resources – machete, AK-47, bombs, motorcycles, cars, suicide bombers, cell phones, internet, websites, media releases through the internet and newspapers Far more violent than other groups, better organized and equipped and probably more motivated than government security operatives Far more violent than other groups, better organized and equipped and probably more motivated than government security operatives Very effective at using force or threat of force to instill fear Very effective at using force or threat of force to instill fear

10 The Government’s “Stick and Carrot” Strategy Stick Strategy – use armed police and soldiers to crack down on B.H. terrorist cells; death of BH leader Mohammed Yusuf and hundreds of militants Carrot strategy – propose dialogue, possibility amnesty in exchange for peace (like Niger Delta militants) B.H. response so far negative Government under domestic and international pressure to not give in to terrorists

11 Government Response Contd. Ongoing move by the Obama administration to place B.H. on list of international terrorist organizations Is Nigeria’s objection to the terrorist label indicative of its reservations over US approach to the war on terror? The Jonathan administration dialogued with Niger Delta militants and offered them amnesty in exchange for peace

12 Implications of BH Militancy for West Africa Possible spill-over into neighboring countries, especially those with recent history of conflicts (Chad, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia) The “mimic syndrome” generated by conflicts elsewhere Recent call for regional cooperation against terrorism, raising question about possible role for ECOMOG, AFRICOM, other multilateral security systems Regional scenarios pose a serious dilemma for the Goodluck administration which has displayed inconsistency in its approach to BH insurgency

13 Armed militants in the oil-rich Niger Delta region – who negotiated peace with the Jonathan administration – currently mimicked by Boko Haram militants

14 Implications of BH Militancy for Nigeria Renewed concerns about credibility of constitutional separation of state and religion and secular status of the Nigerian state Renewed concerns about constitutional protection of cardinal citizenship rights – choice of religious affiliation; place of residence; profession; life style, etc. Above concerns raised at recently concluded meeting of Nigeria’s ethnic nationalities BH militancy has prompted renewed calls for Sovereign National Conference (SNC) by political activists and civil society groups across the country Recent gathering of Nigeria’s ethnic nationalities

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23


Download ppt "BOKO HARAM AND ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN NIGERIA Professor Osita Afoaku School of Public & Environmental Affairs (SPEA), Indiana University Bloomington,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google