Presentation on theme: "BOKO HARAM: TERRORISM IN NIGERIA. RESTRICTED MAP OF NIGERIA Location: West Africa Total Area: 923,768 km 2 Population: 150 Million 36 States 250 Ethnic."— Presentation transcript:
BOKO HARAM: TERRORISM IN NIGERIA
RESTRICTED MAP OF NIGERIA Location: West Africa Total Area: 923,768 km 2 Population: 150 Million 36 States 250 Ethnic groups Official Language: English Main Source of Revenue : Oil
1.Modern Terrorism before this was alien to Nigeria. 2. Most notable incident :1980 Maitatsine riots in Kano State. 3.Militant groups in the Niger Delta area commit kidnapping, sabotage an other terrorist tactics : Osama bin Laden declares interest in Nigeria in a videotape. 5. Boko Haram sect emerges: the current terrorist threat faced by Nigeria. INTRODUCTION
GOAL EXAMINE THE EFFORTS TO COMBAT TERRORISM IN NIGERIA
SCOPE 1.Background of the Boko Haram Sect 2.Challenges of Addressing Terrorism in Nigeria 3. Measures Adopted to Combat Terrorism in Nigeria
BACKGROUND OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT 1. Formed by Mohammed Yusuf in Borno, Yobe, Kano and Bauchi States in 2002
2. The translation of ‘ Boko’ from Hausa is ‘Western education’ while ‘Haram’ means ‘forbidden’ in Arabic. 3. Established mosques and schools for poor families in the area. 4. Members of the sect believe that they are law abiding citizens but do not subscribe to democracy which, they consider, is an unjust government of western orientation.
BACKGROUND OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT 4. The Sect acquires arms and ammunition and begins terrorizing people in the northeastern part of the country. 5. Security forces clampdown on the group and the leader Mohammed Yusuf is arrested but later shot by policemen on 30 July 2009 while about 700 members were reportedly killed.
6. Mohammed Shekau: second-in–command takes over. 7. The Sect transforms into a dreaded group now known as Jama’atul Ahlussunnah Lidda’awati Wal-jihad.. 8. Establishes strong links with AQIM and Al Shabaab.
UNRESTRICTED 1. January 2010: kills 4 in Dala Alemderi ward in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno State September 2010: freed over 700 inmates from a prison in Bauchi State. 3. December 2010: blamed for market bombing; 92 of its members were arrested by police. 4. Friday 28 January 2011: Borno State candidate of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP), Mr Modu Fannami Gubio for the April 2011 gubernatorial elections was assassinated, with his brother, 4 police officers and a 12-year old boy. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT
UNRESTRICTED 5. 8 February 2011: Boko Haram gave conditions for peace. The radicals demanded that the Borno State Governor, Senator Ali Modu Sheriff, should step down from office with immediate effect and also allow members to reclaim their mosque in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State. 6. March : police “thwarted a plot to bomb at an [ANPP] election rally” in Maiduguri, Borno State. The threat was blamed on Boko Haram. 7. April : (the day before the original date of Nigeria’s legislative elections), suspected Boko Haram members attacked a police station in Bauchi April 2011: suspected bombing of a polling center in Maiduguri. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT(CONT)
UNRESTRICTED RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT(CONT) 9. On April 15, the Maiduguri office of the Independent National Electoral Commission was bombed, and several people were shot in a separate incident on the same day. Authorities suspected Boko Haram. 10. On April 20, Boko Haram killed a Muslim cleric and ambushed several police officers in Maiduguri. 11. On April 22, Boko Haram freed 14 prisoners during a jailbreak in Yola, Adamawa State. 12. On 9 May 2011, Boko Haram rejected an offer for amnesty made by the governor-elect of Borno state, Kashim Shettima May 2011, Boko Haram was blamed for a series of bombings in northern Nigeria that left 15 dead.
UNRESTRICTED RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT(CONT) 14. June 17, 2011: claims responsibility for a bombing attack on the police force headquarters in Abuja that occurred the previous day. Officials believed that the attack was the first suicide bombing in Nigeria's history and that it specifically targeted Police Inspector-General Hafiz Ringim. 15. June 26, 2011: suspected bombing attack on a beer garden in Maiduguri, Officials and witnesses: Militants on motorcycles threw explosives into the drinking spot, killing about 25 people. 16. June 27, 2011, suspected bombing in Maiduguri attributed to the group killed at least 2 girls and wounded 3 customs officials. 17. July 03, 2011: suspected bombing in a beer garden in Maiduguri attributed to the group kills at least 20 people.
UNRESTRICTED RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT(CONT) July 2011: suspected bombing the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State July 2011: University of Maiduguri closed its Institution down citing security concerns. 21. Prominent Muslim Cleric Liman Bana was shot dead by Boko Haram on 12 August He died after sustaining gunshot wounds while walking home from conducting prayers at the main mosque in Ngala.
UNRESTRICTED RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE BOKO HARAM SECT(CONT) 22. On 26 August 2011, the UN headquarters in Abuja was blown up by a suicide car bomber, leaving at least 23 dead and dozens more injured and Boko Haram spokesman later claimed responsibility.
UNRESTRICTED CHALLENGES OF ADDRESSING TERRORISM IN NIGERIA
UNRESTRICTED CHALLENGES OF ADDRESSING TERRORISM IN NIGERIA 1.Porous Borders. 2. Strength and location of the threat. 3. Mode of operation. 4.Socio-economic factors. 5. External Support. 6. Enabling legislation.
UNRESTRICTED POROSITY OF BORDERS
UNRESTRICTED AQIM AREA OF OPERATION
RESTRICTED UNRESTRICTED STRENGTH AND LOCATION OF THE SECT
RESTRICTED UNRESTRICTED MEASURES ADOPTED TO COMBAT TERRORISM IN NIGERIA
RESTRICTED UNRESTRICTED MEASURES ADOPTED TO COMBAT TERRORISM IN NIGERIA 1.Enhanced interagency cooperation. 2. International collaboration. 3. Regulation of religious preaching in the country and sale of fertilizer. 4. Capacity building. 5.Review of CT structure. 6. Anti-terrorism Act 2011.
RESTRICTED UNRESTRICTED ANTI-TERRORISM ACT 2011 The act in Section 2(C) provides that terrorism is viewed as an act which involves anyone who causes “an attack upon a person's life which may cause serious bodily harm or death; kidnapping of a person; destruction to a government or public facility, transport system, an infrastructural facility including an information system, a fixed platform located on the continental shelf, public place or private property likely to endanger human life or result in major economic loss. The seizure (hijack) of an aircraft, ship or other means of public or goods transport and the use of such means of transportation for any of the purposes…"