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Radical Islam Current Issues - LHS. What is Radical Islam? ∆Conflict between modernism, traditionalism – Modernism: western industrialization, commercialism.

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Presentation on theme: "Radical Islam Current Issues - LHS. What is Radical Islam? ∆Conflict between modernism, traditionalism – Modernism: western industrialization, commercialism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radical Islam Current Issues - LHS

2 What is Radical Islam? ∆Conflict between modernism, traditionalism – Modernism: western industrialization, commercialism – Traditionalism: return to “glory days” of world dominated by Islam – Radical Islamists believe that people who intro western ways are evil or the enemy (infection of Islam) ∆Muslim governments may be the enemy, too if they adopt Western ways

3 Historical Origin ∆First arose after WWI, in Egypt – Muslim Brotherhood – armed resistance vs. Brits – Advocated jihad vs. West, secular Muslim governments ∆1969 – Qadaffi took power in Libya thru a coup – To hold power, he appealed to regular people as a radical Islamist – Used oil wealth to fund terror network to attack West

4 Historical Origins ∆Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew Iran’s secular gov’t, establishing an Islamist Republic – Sharia law enforced – Seized 52 American Embassy workers as hostages (held 444 days) – US released $8 billion in frozen Iranian assets in exchange for hostages

5 Asymmetric Warfare: The Rise of Islamist Terrorism ∆Problem: Confronting the West ∆Question: How could the Islamists hope to challenge the military strength of the Americans (and, for a while, Soviets)?

6 Asymmetric Warfare ∆Two sides in conflict that have vastly different capabilities ∆Weaker side resorts to novel strategies to “even the odds” ∆One strategy = terrorism

7 Terrorism ∆Systematic use of fear, especially as a means of coercion, against non- combatants (civilians) to achieve an ideological goal

8 Why is Terrorism so Effective? ∆“Uncivilized” way of fighting ∆Targets civilians ∆Incomprehensible to West (cultural differences) – Value of human life – Relative importance of religion

9 Notable Terrorist Attacks ∆Lebanon, 1982: Bombing of US marines barracks in Beirut (242) ∆Lockerbie, Scotland, 1988: Midair bombing / destruction of Pan Am flight 103 (259)

10 Notable Terrorist Attacks ∆1989: Ayatollah Khomeni issued Fatwa (decree) ordering death of Salman Rushdie – Rushdie went into hiding – Fatwa triggered worldwide attacks on bookstores, newsstands, etc

11 Notable Terrorist Attacks ∆New York City, 1993: Bombing of WTC, killing 6 / injuring 1000 ∆Yemen, 2000: USS Cole attack (37 sailors)

12 The Rise of the Taliban and Al- Qaeda ∆Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, – Cold War context – CIA poured US dollars, weapons to support mujahedeen (holy warriors) fighting against Soviets

13 Rise of Taliban ∆1992 – mujahedeen take over country from Soviet backed gov’t – Various other muj. groups continued to fight in country – Central gov’t was very weak – 1994 – Taliban were religious students who had fought against Soviets

14 Rise of Taliban ∆ : Taliban fought against other muj. groups, took over country ∆Instituted strict sharia legal system including floggings, public executions – Effect on women (leaving home, work, no school; punishment for nail polish) – Effect on men (beards)

15 Rise of Al-Qaeda ∆Founded in 1988 at end of Soviet invasion ∆Umbrella group that coordinated, funded different Islamist terrorist groups ∆Est. training camps in Afghanistan (guerrilla tactics, bomb making)

16 Rise of Al-Qaeda ∆Goals of Al-Qaeda – Overthrow secular Muslim gov’ts (esp Saudi Arabian gov’t) – Support radical Islamist movements around world – Encourage rise of worldwide Islamic Caliphate

17 Osama bin Laden ∆Son of Saudi Arabian millionaire ∆Educated as civil engineer or public admin, in Saudi Arabia ∆Fought with muj in Afghanistan ∆Funded training camps in Afghanistan for muj ∆Helped supply radical Islamist groups around world ∆Leader of Al-Qaeda since 1998 ∆Killed in raid in Pakistan, 2011


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