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Radical Islam Current Issues - LHS.

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Presentation on theme: "Radical Islam Current Issues - LHS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radical Islam Current Issues - LHS

2 What is Radical Islam? Conflict between modernism, traditionalism
Modernism: western industrialization, commercialism Traditionalism: return to “glory days” of world dominated by Islam Radical Islamists believe that people who intro western ways are evil or the enemy (infection of Islam) Muslim governments may be the enemy, too if they adopt Western ways

3 Historical Origin First arose after WWI, in Egypt
Muslim Brotherhood – armed resistance vs. Brits Advocated jihad vs. West, secular Muslim governments 1969 – Qadaffi took power in Libya thru a coup To hold power, he appealed to regular people as a radical Islamist Used oil wealth to fund terror network to attack West

4 Historical Origins Ayatollah Khomeini overthrew Iran’s secular gov’t, establishing an Islamist Republic Sharia law enforced Seized 52 American Embassy workers as hostages (held 444 days) US released $8 billion in frozen Iranian assets in exchange for hostages

5 Asymmetric Warfare: The Rise of Islamist Terrorism
Problem: Confronting the West Question: How could the Islamists hope to challenge the military strength of the Americans (and, for a while, Soviets)?

6 Asymmetric Warfare Two sides in conflict that have vastly different capabilities Weaker side resorts to novel strategies to “even the odds” One strategy = terrorism

7 Terrorism Systematic use of fear, especially as a means of coercion, against non-combatants (civilians) to achieve an ideological goal

8 Why is Terrorism so Effective?
“Uncivilized” way of fighting Targets civilians Incomprehensible to West (cultural differences) Value of human life Relative importance of religion

9 Notable Terrorist Attacks
Lebanon, 1982: Bombing of US marines barracks in Beirut (242) Lockerbie, Scotland, 1988: Midair bombing / destruction of Pan Am flight 103 (259)

10 Notable Terrorist Attacks
1989: Ayatollah Khomeni issued Fatwa (decree) ordering death of Salman Rushdie Rushdie went into hiding Fatwa triggered worldwide attacks on bookstores, newsstands, etc

11 Notable Terrorist Attacks
New York City, 1993: Bombing of WTC, killing 6 / injuring 1000 Yemen, 2000: USS Cole attack (37 sailors)

12 The Rise of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Cold War context CIA poured US dollars, weapons to support mujahedeen (holy warriors) fighting against Soviets

13 Rise of Taliban 1992 – mujahedeen take over country from Soviet backed gov’t Various other muj. groups continued to fight in country Central gov’t was very weak 1994 – Taliban were religious students who had fought against Soviets

14 Rise of Taliban : Taliban fought against other muj. groups, took over country Instituted strict sharia legal system including floggings, public executions Effect on women (leaving home, work, no school; punishment for nail polish) Effect on men (beards)

15 Rise of Al-Qaeda Founded in 1988 at end of Soviet invasion
Umbrella group that coordinated, funded different Islamist terrorist groups Est. training camps in Afghanistan (guerrilla tactics, bomb making)

16 Rise of Al-Qaeda Goals of Al-Qaeda
Overthrow secular Muslim gov’ts (esp Saudi Arabian gov’t) Support radical Islamist movements around world Encourage rise of worldwide Islamic Caliphate

17 Osama bin Laden Son of Saudi Arabian millionaire
Educated as civil engineer or public admin, in Saudi Arabia Fought with muj in Afghanistan Funded training camps in Afghanistan for muj Helped supply radical Islamist groups around world Leader of Al-Qaeda since 1998 Killed in raid in Pakistan, 2011

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