Presentation on theme: "The Colonies Become New Nations: Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1The Colonies Become New Nations: Africa Essential Questions:How did former European colonies gain independence, and what challenges did they face after independence?- What challenges did new African nations face?- How has political self-determination changed life in Africa?
2How did former European colonies gain independence, and what challenges did they face after independence?
3Common Themes In New Nations Borders drawn by European colonial powers left nations with diverse religions and ethnic groups.Ethnic and religious diversity has brought conflict.Military coups, one-party systems, and dictatorships kept some countries from achieving democracy.
4Common Themes In New Nations (cont.) Citizens and foreign lenders have forced former dictatorships to hold elections and transition to democracy.Natural resources such as oil have been a source of wealth for some nations but have fueled conflicts in others.During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union competed for influence, particularly in regions with natural resources such as oil, or locations near strategic waterways.
12Growing UnrestNegritude movement – pre-World War II celebration of African cultureWar effort emboldens Africans; Europeans question colonial policy tooColonies take different paths to freedom; some peaceful, some violentMany African colonies become new nations in years after World War IIMost new African nations struggle to become stable and strong
14The First Independent Nation British colony, Gold Coast, is first to gain independence in 1957Kwame Nkrumah – leader ousts Britain from Gold CoastNkrumah serves as first president, attempts to modernize countryHis policies hurt; he is eventually ousted from powerArmy begins long rule in 1966; first free elections held in 2000
16Kenya Claims Independence Jomo Kenyatta – leader of Kenyan independence movementMau Mau – secret society of Kenyans who fight against British ruleKenya wins independence in 1963; Kenyatta becomes presidentDaniel arap Moi follows Kenyatta, ruling harshly, corruptlyMoi resigns in 2002; new party gains power through free elections
17Musa Mwariama & Dedan Kimathi Mau Maufield marshallsMusa Mwariama & Dedan KimathiMau Mau in Kenya
19Daniel arap MoiArap Moi celebrates NRM's 24 year rule
20Algeria Struggles With Independence Algeria wins independence from France in 1962 after armed struggleAhmed Ben Bella – first leader of Algeria, overthrown in 1965Nation faces many problems; causes dissatisfaction among citizensSpurs rise of Islamic fundamentalists; group wins election in 1991Government does not cede power, prompts continual civil war
21Freedom And Turmoil For Congo Congo wins independence from Belgium in 1960Army leader Mobutu Sese Seko rules from 1965 to 1997Rule is repressive and corrupt; overthrown by rebel forcesRebel leader takes control; rival groups continue to fight for powerIn 2006, Joseph Kabila elected president under a new constitutionMobutu's Rise and Fall to Touch It
22War Tears At AngolaAngolans fight for and win independence from Portugal in 1975Two rival groups battle for power; civil war finally ends in 2002