Nigeria – Economy Based heavily on abundant oil reserves Provides most of the revenue for the country Has provided wealth for select few; most remain impoverished (60% below poverty) The 5 th largest supplier to the US Most people still make a living from subsistence farming Heavy borrowing means Nigeria also has a large debt $30 billion external debt
Nigeria – Political Development Annexed by Britain in the late 1800’s Resisted by many groups within Nigeria
Nigeria – Political Development In 1960 Nigeria achieves independence Leader of independence movement - Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe Pictured here on an N500 note (naira)
The “Civil War” in Nigeria After independence, religious, ethnic and economic differences lead to conflict Civil war breaks out in 1967 between different ethnic groups in Nigeria Ibo (Christian/traditional in southeast) believe Muslim Hausa and Fulani groups have too much power
The Civil War in Nigeria Ibo break away and form Republic of Biafra Over 1 million people killed as central government moves to restore unity.
Back and Forth, Back and Forth After the civil war ends, Nigeria moves from civilian to military rule and back again and again Military government from ’74-79 Elections in ’79 Army coup in ’83 Army coup of ’85 Constitution drafted in ’90, failed election in 1993 Army coup in 1993 Failed elections in 1998 Obasanjo elected in 1999, and again in 2003 These elections were disputed by some international observers
Nigeria’s Government Rankings Democracy - 89 th out of 150 nations Political rights - 4 out of 7 (avg. to below) Political liberties - 4 out of 7 Press Freedom – 68 th out of 150 Corruption – 114 th out of 150 Economic Freedom – 112 th out of 165 **How would you rate Nigeria’s government in terms of democracy and development (from A – F?)
Review Where is Nigeria located? What is Nigeria’s most abundant resource? Name one notable fact about Nigeria’s population. What are the main religions in Nigeria? How has Nigeria’s government changed over the course of its history?
Promotional Video about Nigeria http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =O-YiOvZuzAg
Nigeria's 160 million people are divided between numerous ethno-linguistic groups and also along religious lines. Broadly, the Hausa-Fulani people based in the north are mostly Muslims. The Yorubas of the south-west are divided between Muslims and Christians, while the Igbos of the south-east and neighbouring groups are mostly Christian or animist. The Middle Belt is home to hundreds of groups with different beliefs, and around Jos there are frequent clashes between Hausa- speaking Muslims and Christian members of the Berom community.
Despite its vast resources, Nigeria ranks among the most unequal countries in the world, according to the UN. The poverty in the north is in stark contrast to the more developed southern states. While in the oil-rich south- east, the residents of Delta and Akwa Ibom complain that all the wealth they generate flows up the pipeline to Abuja and Lagos.
Southern residents tend to have better access to healthcare, as reflected by the greater uptake of vaccines for polio, tuberculosis, tetanus and diphtheria. Some northern groups have in the past boycotted immunization programs, saying they are a Western plot to make Muslim women infertile. This led to a recurrence of polio, but the vaccinations have now resumed.
Fe male literacy is seen as the key to raising living standards for the next generation. For example, a newborn child is far likelier to survive if its mother is well-educated. In Nigeria we see a stark contrast between the mainly Muslim north and the Christian and animist south. In some northern states less than 5% of women can read and write, whereas in some Igbo areas more than 90% are literate.
Nigeria is Africa's biggest oil producer and among the biggest in the world but most of its people subsist on less than $2 a day. The oil is produced in the south- east and some militant groups there want to keep a greater share of the wealth which comes from under their feet. Attacks by militants on oil installations led to a sharp fall in Nigeria's output during the last decade. But in 2010, a government amnesty led thousands of fighters to lay down their weapons.