Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27, Section 4: The Allies Turn the Tide Main Idea: Despite some early defeats, a series of Allied military successes helped to turn the tide of."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 27, Section 4: The Allies Turn the Tide Main Idea: Despite some early defeats, a series of Allied military successes helped to turn the tide of battle in Europe.
A. Bleak Days for the Allies The Germans dominated Europe for much of 1942, America’s first year in the war. Soviets Under Siege German armies were closing in on Moscow, Leningrad, & Stalingrad. The Soviets resisted German attacks by destroying crops & farm equipment so that the Germans couldn’t use it. –During the 900-day siege of Leningrad, over 1 million Russian civilians died, mostly from starvation. Japanese Advances At the same time, Japan took Guam, Wake Isl., Hong Kong & Singapore after Pearl Harbor. General Douglas MacArthur tried to defend the Philippines & Bataan with few men against overwhelming odds, but was forced to retreat. –He vows, “I shall return” to the Philippines.“I shall return” Japan also takes Malaya, Burma, & Dutch East Indies.
B. The Tide Turns Britain & the US decided it was more important to defeat Germany 1 st, then focus on Japan. Japanese Defeats The Pacific – Battles of Midway & Guadalcanal Victories in North Africa Britain defeated German forces, under General Erwin Rommel, in El Alamein, Egypt. US troops, under Generals Eisenhower, Patton, & Bradley, forced Rommel’s surrender in Tunisia. Successes in Europe Allied forces invaded Italy from N. Africa & Sicily. – Mussolini was overthrown, but Germany still occupied much of the country. Eventually, they were driven out. Mussolini was overthrown The Soviet army held their ground & turn back the Germans at Leningrad & Stalingrad, pushing them westward, back through Eastern Europe Mussolini & His Mistress Are Hung in Milan, 1945
The North Africa Campaign: The Battle of El Alamein, 1942 Gen. Erwin Rommel, The “Desert Fox” Gen. Bernard Law Montgomery (“Monty”)
The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” The Allies Liberate Rome: June 5, 1944
C. Opening a 2 nd Front Stalin was desperate for Britain & the US to attack Germany from the West (through France) to take pressure off his armies in the East. Operation Overlord – code name for invasion of Europe by US & GB –General Eisenhower (US) is in charge of all Allied forces in Europe & directs the invasion. “Atlantic Wall”“Atlantic Wall” – German fortification of the coast to prepare for invasion (mines, barbed wire, machine guns, concrete walls, etc.) D-Day Invasion D-Day D-Day – On June 6, 1944, Allied troops crossed the English Channel & landed in Normandy, France to begin the invasion. By August 25, 1944, the Allies entered Paris & liberated France from German occupation, after 4 years of Nazi rule. –Within a month, all of France was free.
Gen. Eisenhower Gives the Orders for D-Day [“Operation Overlord”] Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944)
T The Liberation of Paris: August 25, 1944 De Gaulle in Triumph!
D. Victory in Europe Advancing Toward Germany In the winter of 1944-45, Germany launched a counterattack against the Allied forces, pushing them back & creating a bulge in the front lines. Known as the Battle of the Bulge, it slowed the Allies, but did not stop them. Battle of the Bulge –Audie Murphy became the most decorated American soldier in WWII for his bravery here. Meanwhile, Germany was being bombed day (factories & oil refineries) & night (cities) by Allied planes to “soften it up” for a ground invasion. –This created fuel shortages for Germany, which seriously hurt its ability to fight.
The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler’s Last Offensive Dec. 16, 1944 to Jan. 28, 1945
A New President President Roosevelt defeated Thomas Dewey, governor of NY, in the Election of 1944 to win his fourth term as President (only one). While on vacation in Georgia, Roosevelt died in April 1945 after serving 12 years as President (longest ever). Vice President Harry S Truman is sworn in as President, taking over with WWII still in progress. Congress will later pass the 22 nd Amendment in 1951, which limited the President to 2 consecutive terms for a maximum of 10 years. –If you take over another President’s term with less than half of it remaining, you can run twice.
Germany is Defeated By April 1945, Germany was collapsing. US & British troops were closing in on Berlin from the West, while Soviet troops advanced from the East. On April 25, American & Soviet troops met at Torgau, 60 miles south of Berlin. Meanwhile, Allied planes continued to pound Berlin with bombs. Hitler committed suicide on April 30 th in his underground bunker, and Germany surrendered a week later, on May 7 th. May 8 = V-E Day - Victory in Europe
Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 The F ü hrer’s Bunker Cyanide & Pistols Mr. & Mrs. Hitler