Presentation on theme: "World War II Part 4 Winning the War. When British Prime Minister Winston Churchill heard about Pearl Harbor, he rejoiced, but for positive reasons. He."— Presentation transcript:
When British Prime Minister Winston Churchill heard about Pearl Harbor, he rejoiced, but for positive reasons. He felt sure that the United States would lead the Allies to victory. Despite Churchill’s optimism, things were grim in December 1941. Hitler’s forces occupied most of Europe, and much of North Africa. Japan was advancing across Asia and the Pacific. It was a bleak time.
The allies decided that Hitler posed the greatest threat and should be defeated first. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill met to discuss goals and strategies. If the Nazi advance into Russia was not stopped, they would control valuable farmland and oil fields. The Russian people fought fiercely. A Time of Peril
As the Germans pushed to Moscow, the Russians burned crops and equipment so they could not be used. In Leningrad, a 900 day siege killed over a million people. The Japanese continued to capture territory in the Far East. General Douglas MacArthur, vowed to return after having been driven away trying to defend the Philippines.
The Tide Turns Victories at SeaVictories in Italy Victories in North Africa Victories on the Russian Front Things started to get better for the allies by the summer of 1942.
Victories at Sea In the crucial Battle of Midway, American planes sank 4 Japanese aircraft carriers. This severely hampered Japan’s offensive capabilities. Hawaii could not be attacked again. In August, U.S. forces captured Guadalcanal, an island in the Solomon Islands. It could be used as a base to counterattack.
Victories in North Africa In October 1942, British forces pushed German forces west from Egypt, after an important victory at El Alamein. American troops landed in North Africa and under General Dwight D. Eisenhower occupied Morocco and Algeria. German General Rommel’s forces had to surrender in Tunisia in May of 1943.
Victories in Italy From bases in North Africa, the allies invaded Italy. Paratroopers flew in, as well as forces from the sea. The island of Sicily was captured, and then the allies crossed to the mainland. The Italians eventually overthrew Mussolini and joined the allies. Fierce fighting continued on the Italian peninsula. Rome was the first capital city freed from the Nazis on June 4, 1944.
Victories on the Russian Front Despite massive German attacks, the Russians held their ground. The Soviet army finally pushed German forces back from Leningrad. After months of fierce house-to-house fighting in Stalingrad, the German army finally surrendered. The Soviet army slowly pushed the Germans westward across eastern Europe.
Operation Overlord and D-Day Ever since Hitler had invaded the Soviet Union, Stalin had been calling for the opening of a second front. This would cause the Germans to divide their forces to both sides. In December 1943, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to attempt the action.
Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of western Europe. It was to be history’s largest invasion. In June of 1944, almost 3 million troops were ready to cross the English Channel. The Germans had built an Atlantic Wall for defensive purposes. They knew that an attack was coming, but they were not sure of its exact location.
On June 6, 1944, D-Day, 4000 ships carried the invaders to France. Landing at Normandy, the allies faced tremendous fire, and suffered heavy casualties, but they pressed forward. Everyday more reinforcements arrived. On August 25, 1944, Paris was liberated after 4 years of Nazi rule. Men, women, and children greeted their liberators with tears of joy.
Advancing on Germany By September 1944, allied forces were heading to Germany. There was a gas shortage which caused trouble in trying to supply the advancing troops. Germany counter- attacked in what was called the Battle of the Bulge. It only slowed us. Allies continued to pound German cities and factories, but it did not break the Germans.
The Election of 1944 Despite being ill and tired, Roosevelt ran for a 4 th term, and won 54% of the vote. However, while on vacation in Georgia, he complained of a headache and died. Many in the world mourned his death. Americans were especially shocked because he had held office for so long. Vice president Harry S. Truman took over and had to finish the war.
Victory in Europe! By April of 1945, American forces were moving in from the West, and the Russians were coming in from the East. On April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin. On May 7 th, Germany surrendered to the allies. Much of the world celebrated May 8 th as V-E Day. VICTORY IN EUROPE!