T HE C OLD W AR Click here for video clip Cold_War.mp4Cold_War.mp4
I.T HE W ORLD IS DIVIDED A. After WWII, the United States and the Soviet Union were the world’s most powerful nations. They were superpowers. B. The Soviet Union controlled much of Eastern Germany, Finland, and Poland. C. Korea was divided into North and South Korea to rid it of Japanese forces.
II. A N EW K IND OF W AR A. Soviet Union was trying to expand communism 1. Soviet’s hoped to control the whole world B. US was committed to stopping the spread of communism C. Struggle became known as the “Cold War” 1. No direct attacking of one country by another a) “Hot War” 2. Fought with words, money, and the threat of weapons D. Third World Countries- Nations that were not part of the Free World or the Communist World
III. P ROPAGANDA A. Systematic effort to spread opinions or beliefs. B. Key element of the Cold War C. Radio messages sent to people behind the Iron Curtain telling them democracy existed D. Soviet Union told their people Americans were poor and democracy did not work.
IV. T HE U NITED N ATIONS A. Formed in 1945 because many nations wanted to promote global peace B. Representatives from 50 nations C. FDR considered one of the main designers, died weeks before the UN became official D. Truman appointed Eleanor Roosevelt as representative E. Goals- to keep peace, encourage respect for human rights, and promote justice and better standards for living.
V. I RON C URTAIN A. The closing off of the Soviet Union. It was as if a curtain of iron shut out the West. It divided the continent of Europe into communist and noncommunist countries.
A. Soviet Union controlled by a communist government. 1. Government owns all land and businesses 2. Little individual personal freedom B. US and Western Europe had democratic governments 1. Promotes personal freedom and free enterprise 2. (people are free to own businesses and property)
A. Government of Moscow (capital of Soviet Union) had complete control of Central and Eastern Europe 1. People unable to vote or travel outside borders. B. Western Leaders were concerned. C. “ An iron curtain has descended(fallen) across the continent.”-Winston Churchill-1946
VI. R ESPONSE TO THE I RON C URTAIN A. Secretary of State George C. Marshall’s plan “The Marshall Plan” 1. 1948 -1952 2. US will provide food, shelter, materials to help European countries rebuild and stand up to communism 3. Over $13,000,000,000 4. Promoted democracy in Europe 5. Strengthened relationships between Europe and US 6. Asian countries received assistance also
B. NATO 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization 2. Military alliance between the nations of Western Europe 3. Countries of NATO promised to help each other in there was an attack by the Soviet Union
C. B ERLIN A IRLIFT ( CLICK HERE FOR VIDEO) CLICK HERE FOR VIDEO 1. Berlin (Germany’s capital) was divided and under control of Eastern Europe a. June 1948-Soviets stopped all air traffic into western Berlin b. No food allowed in c. Electricity cut 2. US and Britain organized the Berlin Airlift a. Airplanes flew in with food and fuel b. Eastern Europe lifted blockade in May 1949
VII. C OLD W AR C ONFLICTS A. The US sought to stop the spread of communism through NATO, The Berlin Airlift, and The Korean War. B. The Korean War-The Cold War turned violent in 1950 (click here)click here A. Korea divided 1. North Korea- Communist 2. South Korea- did not want to be communist
B. North Korea invaded South Korea hoping to unite under a communist government C. Presid e nt Truman did not want another country to fall under communist control 1. sent forces to protect South Korea, marking the beginning of the Korean War 2. Soldiers from 15 nations joined American soldiers 3. Koreans were driven back D. Korean War ended in 1953 1. Korea still divided into two nations 2. North Korea unable to take over South Korea 3. US guarded the border between North and South Korea into the next century.
VII. T HE R ED S CARE AT H OME Red Scare was the term used to describe the panic that Americans were feeling as the communist party grew Red -the official color of communism Reds -term used to describe communists China fell to communism in 1949-US worried about a revolution and spies
IX. J OSEPH M C C ARTHY A. Wisconsin Senator B. Spread propaganda that there were hundreds of communists inside the US government C. Communists hunted 1. Innocent people investigated 2.Some spies arrested A. Americans lost interest hunting communists after the Korean War and US Senate deemed McCarthy’s actions inappropriate
X. T HE A RMS R ACE A. A race to build more and better weapons than your enemy 1. US and the Soviet Union a. Atomic bomb b. Hydrogen bomb 2. Americans built “bomb shelters” underground 3. US continued building weapons hoping to scare off the Germans rather than use the weapons
XI. C UBAN M ISSILE C RISIS ( CLICK HERE FOR VIDEO ) ( CLICK HERE FOR VIDEO I. October 1962 American spy planes discovered the Soviets were setting up nuclear missiles in Cuba (a communist government) A. President Kennedy insisted that the Soviets remove the missiles B. Sent navy ships to block Soviets from bringing in more weapons C. Beginning to look like a nuclear war was about to erupt D. Soviets agreed to remove missiles after 4 days
XII. T HE B ERLIN W ALL A. A wall, made of concrete, stone, and barbed wire, that prevented people in East Berlin from fleeing into West Berlin. 1. people who tried to escape were shot 2. built in 1961 3. reminder that Americans had to remain strong with both words and weapons
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