Presentation on theme: "The Korean War & McCarthyism The Cold War and the American Dream (1945-1960) Chapter 28, Section 2."— Presentation transcript:
The Korean War & McCarthyism The Cold War and the American Dream (1945-1960) Chapter 28, Section 2
Essential Questions Should governments have the right to invade a citizen’s privacy if it’s in the public’s best interest? Should rules ever be “bent?”
John Stewart Service An American Born in China: Lived There until he went to College in the U.S. Hired by the U.S. State Department as a “China Expert” Warned the U.S. that Communism was Growing in China State Department Fired Him – Blamed Him for China’s Communist Revolution
Spread of Communism Civil War Breaks out in China in 1949 Nationalists vs. Communists Communists Win America’s Fear of Communism Grew: –Viewed China’s Revolution as a Communist Plot to Control the World
Korea Korea was a Japanese Colony Before WWII After WWII Ended in 1945, Soviet Troops Occupied Korea North of the 38 th Parallel American Forces Moved in & Took Control South of 38 th Parallel Korea Became the Center of a Cold War Conflict!
Korean War Starts In June 1950, the North Korean Army (Communist) Crossed the 38 th Parallel into South Korea Don’t Forget the U.S. Policy of CONTAINMMENT! U.S. Appealed to the U.N. to STOP the Communist Attack on South Korea
Korean War 16 Nations Joined the United Nations to Fight North Korea U.N. Army was Mostly Made Up of U.S. Troops General Douglas MacArthur was Placed in Charge (“I Shall Return”)
North Korea Almost Conquered All of South Korea (Pusan) General MacArthur Used a Daring Plan by Landing U.N. Troops Behind Enemy Lines at Inchon General MacArthur’s Plan Worked U.N. Troops Pushed North Korea Back to the 38 th Parallel N. Korea Dominates
Counter Attack After Pushing North Korean Forces Back Across the 38 th Parallel, MacArthur Asked Permission to Invade North Korea President Truman Agreed: Wanted to Unite North and South Korea (Make it a Democracy) MacArthur Invaded North Korea
Invasion of North Korea UN Forces Pushed the North Koreans Back to the Yalu River (Border with China) China Warned the U.N. & the U.S. to STOP! What was China Afraid of?
China Enters Korean War In November of 1950 the Chinese Army (Communist) Attacked the U.N. Forces China Helped the North Koreans Drive the U.N. Back Across the 38 th Parallel By 1951, Stalemate at the 38 th Parallel
World War III? General MacArthur Wanted to Bomb China and Blockade their Coastline Truman Refused! Truman Feared Soviet Union Would Back Up China World War III?
You’re Fired! MacArthur Did Not Agree with Truman General MacArthur Criticized President Truman in the Press (Called Him a Wimp) President Truman Could Not Have His Commanders Disobeying Orders You Are FIRED!
Dwight D. Eisenhower As the Korean War was in a Stalemate, Americans Wanted the War to End! Dwight D. Eisenhower Won the 1952 Presidential Election (Republican) WWII War Hero “Ike” Promised to End the Korean War
End of the Korean War At the Peace Table President Eisenhower Asked for Peace Threatened to Use Nuclear Weapons if North Korea and China Disagreed Korean War Ended in a Stalemate! 38 th Parallel Would Divided North Korea (Communist) and South Korea (Democratic) Containment Worked!
Joseph McCarthy Republican Senator from Wisconsin “The List” Accused U.S. Government Officials of Being Communists Caused a “Witch Hunt” in America for Suspected Communists
“The List” “I have here a list of 205 names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department.”
McCarthyism Term Used to Describe Reckless Accusations Against Innocent Americans (1950’s) Accused Americans of Being Communists Thousands of Innocent People Lost Their Careers/Jobs What is Wrong with McCarthyism?
Eisenhower’s Brinksmanship Eisenhower Disagreed with Containment Secretary of State John Foster Dulles Believed in Brinksmanship Believed U.S. Should Go to the Brink of War to Stop Communism Believed the U.S. Should Overthrow Communist Governments
Famous “Red Scare” Trials Alger Hiss (State Department Official) Was Arrested and Convicted for Passing Military Secrets to the Soviet Union Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Were Members of the Communist Party: –Sentenced to Death for Stealing Atomic Secrets & Giving them to the Soviets
Arms Race U.S. Dropped 1 st Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki to End WWII (1945) By 1949, the U.S.S.R. Produced their 1 st Atomic Bombs Hydrogen Bombs Were Produced Next (More Powerful) A Deadly Arms Race Developed with Both Sides Creating More and More Nuclear Arms
Central Intelligence Agency During the 1950’s, the CIA Ran Secret Missions to Prevent the Spread of Communism: –In Iran, the U.S. Overthrew a Leader to Prevent Communism –In Guatemala, the U.S. Trained a Guatemala Rebel Army to Kill the Communist Dictator
Cold War Conflict: Egypt Anyone Remember the Battle of El Alamein? England & France Owned Suez Canal In 1955, Egypt and the Soviet Union Became BFF: Angered U.S. & England U.S. and England Stopped Giving $$$ to Egypt
Suez Canal Crisis When Egypt Did Not Receive $$$, they Seized the Suez Canal England, France & Israel Attacked Egypt The Soviet Union Threatened to Back Egypt The U.S., U.N. and the Soviet Union Convinced England, France & Israel to Stop Fighting (6 Days) Almost WWIII Again
The Israeli “6 Day War” Israel Kicked Egypt’s Butt in the War Took a lot of Land from Egypt and Other Parts of “Palestine” Will Learn More About the “6 Day War” in Global Studies
Sputnik Soviet Union Launched the World’s Very 1 st Satellite into Space = Sputnik Showed that the Soviet Union was Ahead in Science & Math Demonstrated that the U.S.S.R. had a Missile that Could Reach the U.S. Was the Start of the Space Race
Hmmm…. Why do YOU think Sputnik scared the living daylights out of the United States?
Space Race Competition Between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. During the Cold War for Space Exploration 1957, U.S.S.R. Launched Sputnik 1958, U.S.S.R. Sends 1 st Lunar Probe to Reach the Moon 1961, U.S.S.R.’s Yuri Gagarin was the 1 st Man in Space
Space Race Caused a Panic in the U.S. – Soviet Union/ Communism Might Be Better People Feared the Soviet Union Would Dominate Space Exploration Viewed as a Contest Between Communism and Capitalism Also Feared U.S.S.R. Could Reach U.S. with Nuclear Missiles!
NASA NASA was Founded in 1958 After Congress Passed the National Aeronautics & Space Act U.S. Set Aside Billions for NASA President Kennedy Promised at his 1961 Inaugural Address that U.S. Would be the 1 st Country to Land a Man on the Moon
Landing on the Moon John Glenn was the 1 st U.S. Man to Orbit the Earth (1962) (1 Year After the Soviets) Neil Armstrong was the 1 st Man on the Moon – U.S. Won the Space Race July 20 th, 1969 “That’s One Small Step For Man, One Giant Leap for Mankind”